206 research outputs found

    Neurocognitive outcome and mental health in children with tyrosinemia type 1 and phenylketonuria: A comparison between two genetic disorders affecting the same metabolic pathway

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    Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are both inborn errors of phenylalanine–tyrosine metabolism. Neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes have always featured in PKU research but received less attention in TT1 research. This study aimed to investigate and compare neurocognitive, behavioral, and social outcomes of treated TT1 and PKU patients. We included 33 TT1 patients (mean age 11.24 years; 16 male), 31 PKU patients (mean age 10.84; 14 male), and 58 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 10.82 years; 29 male). IQ (Wechsler-subtests), executive functioning (the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning), mental health (the Achenbach-scales), and social functioning (the Social Skills Rating System) were assessed. Results of TT1 patients, PKU patients, and healthy controls were compared using Kruskal–Wallis tests with post-hoc Mann–Whitney U tests. TT1 patients showed a lower IQ and poorer executive functioning, mental health, and social functioning compared to healthy controls and PKU patients. PKU patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding these outcome measures. Relatively poor outcomes for TT1 patients were particularly evident for verbal IQ, BRIEF dimensions “working memory”, “plan and organize” and “monitor”, ASEBA dimensions “social problems” and “attention problems”, and for the SSRS “assertiveness” scale (all p values <0.001). To conclude, TT1 patients showed cognitive impairments on all domains studied, and appeared to be significantly more affected than PKU patients. More attention should be paid to investigating and monitoring neurocognitive outcome in TT1 and research should focus on explaining the underlying pathophysiological mechanism

    Modeling cartilage pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis VI using iPSCs reveals early dysregulation of chondrogenic and metabolic gene expression

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    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a metabolic disorder caused by disease-associated variants in the Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) gene, resulting in ARSB enzyme deficiency, lysosomal glycosaminoglycan accumulation, and cartilage and bone pathology. The molecular response to MPS VI that results in cartilage pathology in human patients is largely unknown. Here, we generated a disease model to study the early stages of cartilage pathology in MPS VI. We generated iPSCs from four patients and isogenic controls by inserting the ARSB cDNA in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Using an optimized chondrogenic differentiation protocol, we found Periodic acid–Schiff positive inclusions in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis showed that hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI downregulated expression of genes involved in TGF-β/BMP signalling, and upregulated expression of inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Expression of genes involved in apoptosis and growth was upregulated, while expression of genes involved in glycosaminoglycan metabolism was dysregulated in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. These results suggest that human ARSB deficiency in MPS VI causes changes in the transcriptional program underlying the early stages of chondrogenic differentiation and metabolism

    Image1_Modeling cartilage pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis VI using iPSCs reveals early dysregulation of chondrogenic and metabolic gene expression.pdf

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    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a metabolic disorder caused by disease-associated variants in the Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) gene, resulting in ARSB enzyme deficiency, lysosomal glycosaminoglycan accumulation, and cartilage and bone pathology. The molecular response to MPS VI that results in cartilage pathology in human patients is largely unknown. Here, we generated a disease model to study the early stages of cartilage pathology in MPS VI. We generated iPSCs from four patients and isogenic controls by inserting the ARSB cDNA in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Using an optimized chondrogenic differentiation protocol, we found Periodic acid–Schiff positive inclusions in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis showed that hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI downregulated expression of genes involved in TGF-β/BMP signalling, and upregulated expression of inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Expression of genes involved in apoptosis and growth was upregulated, while expression of genes involved in glycosaminoglycan metabolism was dysregulated in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. These results suggest that human ARSB deficiency in MPS VI causes changes in the transcriptional program underlying the early stages of chondrogenic differentiation and metabolism.</p

    DataSheet1_Modeling cartilage pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis VI using iPSCs reveals early dysregulation of chondrogenic and metabolic gene expression.pdf

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    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a metabolic disorder caused by disease-associated variants in the Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) gene, resulting in ARSB enzyme deficiency, lysosomal glycosaminoglycan accumulation, and cartilage and bone pathology. The molecular response to MPS VI that results in cartilage pathology in human patients is largely unknown. Here, we generated a disease model to study the early stages of cartilage pathology in MPS VI. We generated iPSCs from four patients and isogenic controls by inserting the ARSB cDNA in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Using an optimized chondrogenic differentiation protocol, we found Periodic acid–Schiff positive inclusions in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis showed that hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI downregulated expression of genes involved in TGF-β/BMP signalling, and upregulated expression of inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Expression of genes involved in apoptosis and growth was upregulated, while expression of genes involved in glycosaminoglycan metabolism was dysregulated in hiPSC-derived chondrogenic cells with MPS VI. These results suggest that human ARSB deficiency in MPS VI causes changes in the transcriptional program underlying the early stages of chondrogenic differentiation and metabolism.</p

    Proxy evidence for state-dependence of climate sensitivity in the Eocene greenhouse

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    Despite recent advances, the link between the evolution of atmospheric CO2 and climate during the Eocene greenhouse remains uncertain. In particular, modelling studies suggest that in order to achieve the global warmth that characterised the early Eocene, warmer climates must be more sensitive to CO2 forcing than colder climates. Here, we test this assertion in the geological record by combining a new high-resolution boron isotope-based CO2 record with novel estimates of Global Mean Temperature. We find that Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) was indeed higher during the warmest intervals of the Eocene, agreeing well with recent model simulations, and declined through the Eocene as global climate cooled. These observations indicate that the canonical IPCC range of ECS (1.5 to 4.5 °C per doubling) is unlikely to be appropriate for high-CO2 warm climates of the past, and the state dependency of ECS may play an increasingly important role in determining the state of future climate as the Earth continues to warm

    Oral microbiome and health

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    Mindfulness, Interpretation Bias, and Levels of Anxiety and Depression: Two Mediation Studies

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    textabstractIn two studies, a possible mediation effect was tested of cognitive interpretation bias in the relation between respectively dispositional mindfulness and acceptance, on the one hand, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, on the other hand. An undergraduate student sample (N = 133; 86% female, Mage = 19.8) and a convenience community sample (N = 186; 66% female, Mage = 36.5) were examined by means of an online questionnaire measuring dispositional mindfulness (FFMQ-SF; Study 1) and acceptance (AAQ-II; Study 2), anxiety (STAI-trait) and depressive (BDI-II) symptoms, and interpretation bias (with the i

    Imaging of respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease: A review

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    Respiratory muscle weakness frequently occurs in patients with neuromuscular disease. Measuring respiratory function with standard pulmonary function tests provides information about the contribution of all respiratory muscles, the lungs and airways. Imaging potentially enables the study of different respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, separately. In this review, we provide an overview of imaging techniques used to study respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease. We identified 26 studies which included a total of 573 patients with neuromuscular disease. Imaging of respiratory muscles was divided into static and dynamic techniques. Static techniques comprise chest radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasound, CT and MRI, and are used to assess the position and thickness of the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles. Dynamic techniques include fluoroscopy, M-mode (motion mode) ultrasound and MRI, used to assess diaphragm motion in one or more directions. We discuss how these imaging techniques relate with spirometric values and whether these can be used to study the contribution of the different respiratory muscles in patients with neuromuscular disease

    Infiltrative/storage cardiomyopathies: Clinical assessment and imaging in diagnosis and patient management

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    10non/anonenoneMoretti, Michele; Fabris, Enrico; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Pinamonti, Bruno; Abate, Elena; Vitrella, Giancarlo; Merlo, Marco; Brun, Francesca; Pagnan, Lorenzo; Sinagra, GianfrancoMoretti, Michele; Fabris, Enrico; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Pinamonti, Bruno; Abate, Elena; Vitrella, Giancarlo; Merlo, Marco; Brun, Francesca; Pagnan, Lorenzo; Sinagra, Gianfranc

    Precision Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Disorders

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    Purpose: The implementation of newborn screening for lysosomal disorders has uncovered overall poor specificity, psychosocial harm experienced by caregivers, and costly follow-up testing of false-positive cases. We report an informatics solution proven to minimize these issues. Methods: The Kentucky Department for Public Health outsourced testing for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) and Pompe disease, conditions recently added to the recommended uniform screening panel, plus Krabbe disease, which was added by legislative mandate. A total of 55,161 specimens were collected from infants born over 1 year starting from February 2016. Testing by tandem mass spectrometry was integrated with multivariate pattern recognition software (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports), which is freely available to newborn screening programs for selection of cases for which a biochemical second-tier test is needed. Results: Of five presumptive positive cases, one was affected with infantile Krabbe disease, two with Pompe disease, and one with MPS I. The remaining case was a heterozygote for the latter condition. The false-positive rate was 0.0018% and the positive predictive value was 80%. Conclusion: Postanalytical interpretive tools can drastically reduce false-positive outcomes, with preliminary evidence of no greater risk of false-negative events, still to be verified by long-term surveillance
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