139 research outputs found

    Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1 kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic Fusarium that includes the Fusarium solani Species Complex

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    Scientific communication is facilitated by a data-driven, scientifically sound taxonomy that considers the end-user¿s needs and established successful practice. In 2013, the Fusarium community voiced near unanimous support for a concept of Fusarium that represented a clade comprising all agriculturally and clinically important Fusarium species, including the F. solani species complex (FSSC). Subsequently, this concept was challenged in 2015 by one research group who proposed dividing the genus Fusarium into seven genera, including the FSSC described as members of the genus Neocosmospora, with subsequent justification in 2018 based on claims that the 2013 concept of Fusarium is polyphyletic. Here, we test this claim and provide a phylogeny based on exonic nucleotide sequences of 19 orthologous protein-coding genes that strongly support the monophyly of Fusarium including the FSSC. We reassert the practical and scientific argument in support of a genus Fusarium that includes the FSSC and several other basal lineages, consistent with the longstanding use of this name among plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, students, and researchers with a stake in its taxonomy. In recognition of this monophyly, 40 species described as genus Neocosmospora were recombined in genus Fusarium, and nine others were renamed Fusarium. Here the global Fusarium community voices strong support for the inclusion of the FSSC in Fusarium, as it remains the best scientific, nomenclatural, and practical taxonomic option availabl

    Mycosands: Fungal diversity and abundance in beach sand and recreational waters — Relevance to human health

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    The goal of most studies published on sand contaminants is to gather and discuss knowledge to avoid faecal contamination of water by run-offs and tide-retractions. Other life forms in the sand, however, are seldom studied but always pointed out as relevant. The Mycosands initiative was created to generate data on fungi in beach sands and waters, of both coastal and freshwater inland bathing sites. A team of medical mycologists and water quality specialists explored the sand culturable mycobiota of 91 bathing sites, and water of 67 of these, spanning from the Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean coasts, including the Italian lakes and the Adriatic, Baltic, and Black Seas. Sydney (Australia) was also included in the study. Thirteen countries took part in the initiative. The present study considered several fungal parameters (all fungi, several species of the genus Aspergillus and Candida and the genera themselves, plus other yeasts, allergenic fungi, dematiaceous fungi and dermatophytes). The study considered four variables that the team expected would influence the results of the analytical parameters, such as coast or inland location, urban and non-urban sites, period of the year, geographical proximity and type of sediment. The genera most frequently found were Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Fusarium spp. and Cryptococcus spp. both in sand and in water. A site-blind median was found to be 89 Colony-Forming Units (CFU) of fungi per gram of sand in coastal and inland freshwaters, with variability between 0 and 6400 CFU/g. For freshwater sites, that number was 201.7 CFU/g (0, 6400 CFU/g (p = 0.01)) and for coastal sites was 76.7 CFU/g (0, 3497.5 CFU/g). For coastal waters and all waters, the median was 0 CFU/ml (0, 1592 CFU/ml) and for freshwaters 6.7 (0, 310.0) CFU/ml (p < 0.001). The results advocate that beaches should be monitored for fungi for safer use and better management. © 2021 Elsevier B.V

    Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1 kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic Fusarium that includes the Fusarium solani Species Complex

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    Scientific communication is facilitated by a data-driven, scientifically sound taxonomy that considers the end-user's needs and established successful practice. Previously (Geiser et al. 2013; Phytopathology 103:400-408. 2013), the Fusarium community voiced near unanimous support for a concept of Fusarium that represented a clade comprising all agriculturally and clinically important Fusarium species, including the F. solani Species Complex (FSSC). Subsequently, this concept was challenged by one research group (Lombard et al. 2015 Studies in Mycology 80: 189-245) who proposed dividing Fusarium into seven genera, including the FSSC as the genus Neocosmospora, with subsequent justification based on claims that the Geiser et al. (2013) concept of Fusarium is polyphyletic (Sandoval-Denis et al. 2018; Persoonia 41:109-129). Here we test this claim, and provide a phylogeny based on exonic nucleotide sequences of 19 orthologous protein-coding genes that strongly support the monophyly of Fusarium including the FSSC. We reassert the practical and scientific argument in support of a Fusarium that includes the FSSC and several other basal lineages, consistent with the longstanding use of this name among plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, students and researchers with a stake in its taxonomy. In recognition of this monophyly, 40 species recently described as Neocosmospora were recombined in Fusarium, and nine others were renamed Fusarium. Here the global Fusarium community voices strong support for the inclusion of the FSSC in Fusarium, as it remains the best scientific, nomenclatural and practical taxonomic option available

    Evolution of fungemia in an Italian region

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    Background: Fungemia represents a public health concern. Knowing aetiology and activity of the antifungals is critical for the management of bloodstream infections. Therefore, surveillance on local/international levels is desirable for a prompt administration of appropriate therapy. Methods: Data on fungi responsible for fungemia and antifungal susceptibility profiles were collected from a laboratory-based surveillance over 2016\u20132017 in 12 hospitals located in Lombardia, Italy. The trend of this infection in twenty years was analysed. Results: A total of 1024 episodes were evaluated. Rate of candiaemia progressively increased up to 1.46/1000 admissions. C.albicans was the most common species (52%), followed by C. parapsilosis (15%) and C glabrata (13%). As in the previous surveys the antifungal resistance is rare (echinocandins < 2%, fluconazole 6%, amphotericin B 0.6%). Fungi other than Candida were responsible for 18 episodes: Cryptococcus neoformans (5 cases), Fusarium spp. (4), Magnusiomyces clavatus (3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3), Rhodotorula spp. (2), Exophiala dermatitidis (1). All fungi, except S.cerevisiae, were intrinsically resistant to echinocandins. Some isolates showed also elevated azole MIC. Conclusions: No particular changes in terms of species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns was noted. However, surveillance programs are needed to monitor trends in antifungal resistance, steer stewardship activities, orient empirical treatment

    Corrigendum: Azole-resistance in aspergillus terreusand related species: An emerging problem or a rare phenomenon? (Frontiers in Microbiology (2018) 9 (516) DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00516)

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    Raquel Sabino was not included as an author in the published article. The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. © 2019 Zoran, Sartori, Sappl, Aigner, Sánchez-Reus, Rezusta, Chowdhary, Taj-Aldeen, Arendrup, Oliveri, Kontoyiannis, Alastruey-Izquierdo, Lagrou, Lo Cascio, Meis, Buzina, Farina, Drogari-Apiranthitou, Grancini, Tortorano, Willinger, Hamprecht, Johnson, Klingspor, Arsic-Arsenijevic, Cornely, Meletiadis, Prammer, Tullio, Vehreschild, Trovato, Lewis, Segal, Rath, Hamal, Rodriguez-Iglesias, Roilides, Arikan-Akdagli, Chakrabarti, Colombo, Fernández, Martin-Gomez, Badali, Petrikkos, Klimko, Heimann, Uzun, Roudbary, de la Fuente, Houbraken, Risslegger, Sabino, Lass-Flörl and Lackner

    Yeast-like filamentous fungi: Molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility study

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    Yeast-like filamentous fungi, collected in Italy from 1985 to 2018, were submitted to molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testings. Clinical isolates were identified as Magnusiomyces capitatus (28), M. clavatus (18), and Geotrichum candidum (2). M. clavatus was prevalent among blood isolates (18/24), M. capitatus among isolates from other biological materials. The intrinsic echinocandin resistance was confirmed. Both species had low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, while M. clavatus had lower MIC of flucytosine and higher MIC of isavuconazole than M. capitatus. The intrinsic resistance of these species to echinocandins could be the reason of the recent increase of M. clavatus bloodstream infections

    Epidemiological trends of cryptococcosis in Italy: Molecular typing and susceptibility pattern of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates collected during a 20-year period

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    In the present study clinical data and isolates from cases of cryptococcosis recorded during clinical surveys carried out in Italy from 1997 to 2016, were investigated. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility testing were performed in order to delineate the epidemiological trend of cryptococcosis in Italy and to define wild-type population for four different antifungal compounds. During the studied period, a total of 302 cases collected from 32 centers of 11 Italian regions were recorded. Analysis of clinical data showed a significant increase of frequency (from 7% to 38%) of cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients primarily with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplantations. The prevalence of the molecular types has significantly changed during the study period, showing an increase of VNIII isolates from 11% to 41% in HIV-negative patients, and a decrease of VNIV isolates from 36% to 16%. Antifungal susceptibility testing allowed us to calculate the epidemiological cut-off for flucytosine (1 mg/l), fluconazole (8 mg/l), itraconazole (0.5 mg/l), and voriconazole (0.25 mg/l). Most of the isolates were wild-type strains. Comparison of the MIC distributions according to molecular types showed that VNIV isolates had lower MICs for fluconazole and itraconazole than the VNI and VIII isolates. The current study emphasizes that the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Italy has significantly changed over the last decades

    Aspergillus fumigatus resistente agli azoli è presente anche nell’ambiante agricolo in Croazia (regione Istriana)?

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    La resistenza agli azoli in Aspergillus fumigatus \ue8 riconosciuta come un problema emergente in tutto il mondo. La resistenza si pu\uf2 sviluppare nell'ambiente a causa dell'uso massiccio di fungicidi azolici in agricoltura ed il meccanismo di resistenza \ue8 principalmente correlato alla mutazione TR34/L98H nel gene cyp51A, anche se negli ultimi anni sono stati evidenziati anche altre mutazioni quali TR46/Y121F/T289A e G54. La presenza di A. fumigatus resistente agli azoli nell\u2019ambiente \ue8 stata provata in diversi paesi europei, ma fino ad ora nessuno studio sembra essere stato condotto in Croazia. La Croazia, in particolar modo la regione dell\u2019Istria, \ue8 ricca di coltivazioni di vite e di ulivo. Con questo studio si \ue8 voluto verificare se anche in Croazia, specificatamente in Istria, ci fossero dei ceppi di A. fumigatus resistenti agli azoli nell\u2019ambiente agricolo. Metodi. Campioni di terra, trattati secondo metodi descritti in precedenza (Appl. Environment. Microbiol 2009; 75: 4053), sono stati seminati su terreno agarizzato con e senza itraconazolo (4 mg / L) e incubati a 37\ub0 e 42 \ub0C per 72 ore. Le colonie di A. fumigatus cresciute in presenza di itraconazolo sono state saggiate per la sensibilit\ue0 ad itraconazolo, posaconazolo e voriconazolo mediante il metodo di microdiluizione in brodo (metodica EUCAST). Resultati. Nell\u2019autunno del 2017 sono stati raccolti 21 campioni di terra da 7 siti, tutti in Istria, zona di Vodnjan (Dignano). Quattro provenivano da coltivazioni intensive di ulivo e tre da vigneti. Sei appezzamenti erano stati trattati con diversi fungicidi, quattro di questi avevano ricevuto trattamenti con triazoli (propiconazolo, tebuconazolo, difenconazolo). Un uliveto era invece a coltivazione biologica (solo rame). Da 8 dei 21 campioni (38%) sono cresciuti, su terreno selettivo contenente itraconazolo, ceppi di A. fumigatus. Il test di microdiluizione in brodo, per saggiarne la sensibilit\ue0, non ha per\uf2 evidenziato nessuna effettiva resistenza. Sono quindi risultati tutti sensibili a itraconazolo (MIC range 0,5-1 mg/L), a voriconazolo (MIC 1-2 mg/L) e a posaconazolo (MIC 0,003-0,25 mg/L). Conclusioni. Da questo primo studio non emergono resistenze agli azoli nelle coltivazioni intensive di vite ed ulivo in Croazia, anche se trattate con triazoli. Lo studio si limita per ora solo ad una piccola area dell\u2019Istria, interessante sarebbe proseguire esaminando una regione pi\uf9 ampia

    Posaconazole MIC distributions for aspergillus fumigatus species complex by four methods: Impact of cyp51a mutations on estimation of epidemiological cutoff values

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    Estimating epidemiological cutoff endpoints (ECVs/ECOFFS) may be hindered by the overlap of MICs for mutant and nonmutant strains (strains harboring or not harboring mutations, respectively). Posaconazole MIC distributions for theAspergillus fumigatus species complex were collected from 26 laboratories (in Australia, Canada, Europe, India, South and North America, and Taiwan) and published studies. Distributions that fulfilled CLSI criteria were pooled and ECVs were estimated. The sensitivity of three ECV analytical techniques (the ECOFFinder, normalized resistance interpretation [NRI], derivatization methods) to the inclusion of MICs for mutants was examined for three susceptibility testing methods (the CLSI, EUCAST, and Etest methods). The totals of posaconazole MICs for nonmutant isolates (isolates with no known cyp51A mutations) and mutant A. fumigatus isolates were as follows: by the CLSI method, 2,223 and 274, respectively; by the EUCAST method, 556 and 52, respectively; and by Etest, 1,365 and 29, respectively. MICs for 381 isolates with unknown mutational status were also evaluated with the Sensititre Yeast- One system (SYO). We observed an overlap in posaconazole MICs among nonmutants and cyp51A mutants. At the commonly chosen percentage of the modeled wild-type population (97.5%), almost all ECVs remained the same when the MICs for nonmutant and mutant distributions were merged: ECOFFinder ECVs, 0.5 μg/ml for the CLSI method and 0.25 μg/ml for the EUCAST method and Etest; NRI ECVs, 0.5 μg/ml for all three methods. However, the ECOFFinder ECV for 95% of the nonmutant population by the CLSI method was 0.25 μg/ml. The tentative ECOFFinder ECV with SYO was 0.06 μg/ml (data from 3/8 laboratories). Derivatization ECVs with or without mutant inclusion were either 0.25 μg/ml (CLSI, EUCAST, Etest) or 0.06 μg/ml (SYO). It appears that ECV analytical techniques may not be vulnerable to overlap between presumptive wild-type isolates and cyp51A mutants when up to 11.6% of the estimated wild-type population includes mutants. © Copyright 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved

    Azole-resistance in Aspergillus terreus and related species: An emerging problem or a rare Phenomenon?

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    Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic) species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied. Methods: A global set (n = 498) of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin), tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene. Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8), followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4), A. hortai (2.6), A. alabamensis (1.6), A. neoafricanus (0.2), and A. floccosus (0.2). One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4 of all tested isolates, 6.2 of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s.) were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0 in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7 in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V. Conclusions: Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4 of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus isolates was higher than 10, resistance against voriconazole was rare and absent for itraconazole. © 2018 Zoran, Sartori, Sappl, Aigner, Sánchez-Reus, Rezusta, Chowdhary, Taj-Aldeen, Arendrup, Oliveri, Kontoyiannis, Alastruey-Izquierdo, Lagrou, Cascio, Meis, Buzina, Farina, Drogari-Apiranthitou, Grancini, Tortorano, Willinger, Hamprecht, Johnson, Klingspor, Arsic-Arsenijevic, Cornely, Meletiadis, Prammer, Tullio, Vehreschild, Trovato, Lewis, Segal, Rath, Hamal, Rodriguez-Iglesias, Roilides, Arikan-Akdagli, Chakrabarti, Colombo, Fernández, Martin-Gomez, Badali, Petrikkos, Klimko, Heimann, Uzun, Roudbary, de la Fuente, Houbraken, Risslegger, Lass-Flörl and Lackner
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