6 research outputs found

    The effect of orthophosphoric acid on energy-intensive parameters of porous carbon electrode materials

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    The effect of orthophosphoric acid concentration as an activating agent on the porous structure of carbon materials derived from apricot pits and energy-intensive parameters of electrochemical capacitors formed on their basis is studied. It is found that changing the ratio of the mass of the activating agent to the mass of the raw material in acid-activated porous carbon materials (PCMs), one can control the pore size distribution in the range of 0.5-20 nm and specific surface area in the range of 775-1830 m2/g. The use of cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry made it possible to set the capacitive nature of charge accumulation processes in acid-activated PCMs, as well as to determine the contribution of a certain size of pores to the specific capacitance of PCM/electrolyte system

    The Secretory Apparatus of an Ancient Eukaryote: Protein Sorting to Separate Export Pathways Occurs Before Formation of Transient Golgi-like Compartments

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    Transmission of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to vertebrate hosts presupposes the encapsulation of trophozoites into an environmentally resistant and infectious cyst form. We have previously shown that cyst wall proteins were faithfully sorted to large encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), despite the absence of a recognizable Golgi apparatus. Here, we demonstrate that sorting to a second constitutively active pathway transporting variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) to the surface depended on the cytoplasmic VSP tail. Moreover, pulsed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export of chimeric reporters containing functional signals for both pathways showed that protein sorting was done at or very soon after export from the ER. Correspondingly, we found that a limited number of novel transitional ER-like structures together with small transport intermediates were generated during encystation. Colocalization of transitional ER regions and early ESVs with coat protein (COP) II and of maturing ESVs with COPI and clathrin strongly suggested that ESVs form by fusion of ER-derived vesicles and subsequently undergo maturation by retrograde transport. Together, the data supported the hypothesis that in Giardia, a primordial secretory apparatus is in operation by which proteins are sorted in the early secretory pathway, and the developmentally induced ESVs carry out at least some Golgi functions

    Neurotoxocarosis Neurotoxocaríase

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    Infection of humans with embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis (larva migrans) remains asymptomatic, or results in covert or common toxocarosis, visceral larva migrans syndrome, or ophthalmologic and neurologic impairment. Though neurological manifestations of Toxocara canis larvae are rare, toxocarosis remains an important differential diagnosis of various neurological disorders. Manifestations of the central nervous system are dementia, meningo-encephalitis, myelitis, cerebral vasculitis, epilepsy, or optic neuritis. Manifestations of the peripheral nervous system comprise radiculitis, affection of cranial nerves, or musculo-skeletal involvement. If toxocarosis is neglected, ignored, or refused as a differential of these abnormalities, it may be easily overlooked for years. Early recognition and treatment of the infection is, however, of paramount importance since it reduces morbidity and mortality and the risk of secondary superinfection. Like the visceral manifestations, neurological manifestations of toxocarosis are treated by benzimidazole components, most frequently albendazole, corticosteroids, or diethylcarbamazine. If detected and treated early, the prognosis of neurological manifestations of toxocarosis is favourable.<br>Infec√ß√£o humana com ovos embrionados de Toxocara canis (larva migrans) pode permanecer assintom√°tica ou resultar em toxocar√≠ase acentuada ou comum, s√≠ndrome da larva migrans visceral ou manifesta√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas ou oftalmol√≥gicas. Embora manifesta√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas das larvas de Toxocara canis sejam raras, a toxocar√≠ase permanece como importante diagn√≥stico diferencial de v√°rias manifesta√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas. Manifesta√ß√Ķes do sistema nervoso central s√£o dem√™ncia, meningoencefalite, mielite, vasculite cerebral, epilepsia, ou neurite √≥tica. Manifesta√ß√Ķes do sistema nervoso perif√©rico compreendem radiculite, agress√£o de nervos cranianos ou envolvimento m√ļsculo-esquel√©tico. Se a toxocar√≠ase √© negligenciada, ignorada, ou recusada como diferencial destas anormalidades, ela pode ser facilmente desapercebida por anos. Reconhecimento precoce de tratamento da infec√ß√£o √© portanto de fundamental import√Ęncia uma vez que reduz sua morbidade e mortalidade e o risco de superinfec√ß√£o secund√°ria. Da mesma maneira que as manifesta√ß√Ķes viscerais, as neurol√≥gicas s√£o tratadas por benzimidaz√≥licos, mais freq√ľentemente albendazole, corticoster√≥ides ou dietilcarbamazine. Se detectado e tratado precocemente, o progn√≥stico das manifesta√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas da toxocar√≠ase √© favor√°vel

    Heat shock proteins: Molecules with assorted functions

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