39 research outputs found

    Impact of smoke-free policies in hospitality venues and the home environment on smoking behaviour and exposure to second-hand smoke:Results of two systematic reviews

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    Background Smoke-free policies (SFPs) have proven to be effective in protecting people from exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and lowering smoking rates. Our aims were to assess the impact of SFPs in hospitality venues (e.g. bars) on smoking behaviour of young people and to assess the impact of SFPs in the home environment on smoking behaviour and exposure to SHS. Methods Two reviews were conducted. The first was conducted in June 2020. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for studies that assessed the association between any form of SFPs in hospitality venues and a measure of smoking behaviour among young people (aged 10-24 years). The second review will be conducted in June 2022. Searches will be conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We will search for studies that assess the association between any form of SFPs in the home environment (e.g. multi-unit housing) and a measure of smoking behaviour (e.g. initiation) or SHS exposure. Results Nine studies (publication years 2005-2016) were included in the first review, of which the majority used a quasi-experimental design. Four studies evaluated SFPs in hospitality venues specifically. Two studies reported that strict, but not weaker, SFPs decrease progression to established smoking. Two other studies provided mixed results. Five studies also included other workplaces, of which three studies found significant decreases in current smoking, smoking frequency, and/or smoking quantity. The results of the second review will be presented in detail during the workshop, however an exploration suggests that SFPs in the home environment may prevent smoking and SHS exposure. Conclusions Most studies of the first review found that SFPs in hospitality venues are associated with a decrease in smoking behaviour among young people. Their results indicate the need for strict smoke-free legislation without exemptions. The conclusions of the second review will be presented during the workshop

    Impact of smoke-free policies in hospitality venues and the home environment on smoking behaviour and exposure to second-hand smoke: Results of two systematic reviews

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    Background Smoke-free policies (SFPs) have proven to be effective in protecting people from exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and lowering smoking rates. Our aims were to assess the impact of SFPs in hospitality venues (e.g. bars) on smoking behaviour of young people and to assess the impact of SFPs in the home environment on smoking behaviour and exposure to SHS. Methods Two reviews were conducted. The first was conducted in June 2020. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for studies that assessed the association between any form of SFPs in hospitality venues and a measure of smoking behaviour among young people (aged 10-24 years). The second review will be conducted in June 2022. Searches will be conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We will search for studies that assess the association between any form of SFPs in the home environment (e.g. multi-unit housing) and a measure of smoking behaviour (e.g. initiation) or SHS exposure. Results Nine studies (publication years 2005-2016) were included in the first review, of which the majority used a quasi-experimental design. Four studies evaluated SFPs in hospitality venues specifically. Two studies reported that strict, but not weaker, SFPs decrease progression to established smoking. Two other studies provided mixed results. Five studies also included other workplaces, of which three studies found significant decreases in current smoking, smoking frequency, and/or smoking quantity. The results of the second review will be presented in detail during the workshop, however an exploration suggests that SFPs in the home environment may prevent smoking and SHS exposure. Conclusions Most studies of the first review found that SFPs in hospitality venues are associated with a decrease in smoking behaviour among young people. Their results indicate the need for strict smoke-free legislation without exemptions. The conclusions of the second review will be presented during the workshop

    Physicians' guideline adherence is associated with long-term heart failure mortality in outpatients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the QUALIFY international registry

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    Background: Physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended therapy is associated with short-term clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, its impact on longer-term outcomes is poorly documented. Here, we present results from the 18-month follow-up of the QUALIFY registry. Methods and results: Data at 18 months were available for 6118 ambulatory HFrEF patients from this international prospective observational survey. Adherence was measured as a continuous variable, ranging from 0 to 1, and was assessed for five classes of recommended HF medications and dosages. Most deaths were cardiovascular (CV) (228/394) and HF-related (191/394) and the same was true for unplanned hospitalizations (1175 CV and 861 HF-related hospitalizations, out of a total of 1541). According to univariable analysis, CV and HF deaths were significantly associated with physician adherence to guidelines. In multivariable analysis, HF death was associated with adherence level [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.034] as was composite of HF hospitalization or CV death (SHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94–0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.043), whereas unplanned all-cause, CV or HF hospitalizations were not (all-cause: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.9–1.02; CV: SHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.01; and HF: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96–1.02 per 0.1 unit change in adherence score; P = 0.52, P = 0.2, and P = 0.4, respectively). Conclusion: These results suggest that physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended HF therapies is associated with improved outcomes in HFrEF. Practical strategies should be established to improve physicians' adherence to guidelines. © 2019 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2019 European Society of Cardiolog

    Quantum correlations and fluctuations in the pulsed light produced by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator below its oscillation threshold

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    We present a simple quantum theory for the pulsed light generated by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) in the degenerate case where the signal and idler trains of pulses coincide, below threshold and neglecting all dispersion effects. Our main goal is to precise in the obtained quantum effects, which ones are identical to the c.w. case and which ones are specific to the SPOPO. We demonstrate in particular that the temporal correlations have interesting peculiarities: the quantum fluctuations at different times within the same pulse turn out to be totally not correlated, whereas they are correlated between nearby pulses at times that are placed in the same position relative to the centre of the pulses. The number of significantly correlated pulses is of the order of cavity finesse. We show also that there is perfect squeezing at noise frequencies multiple of the pulse repetition frequency when one approaches the threshold from below on the signal field quadrature measured by a balanced homodyne detection with a local oscillator of very short duration compared to the SPOPO pulse length.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    Z-palatoplasty

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    Retinitis Pigmentosa and Associated Disorders

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    Second law of thermodynamics for macroscopic mechanics coupled to thermodynamic degrees of freedom

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    Based only on classical Hamiltonian dynamics, we prove the maximum work principle in a system where macroscopic dynamical degrees of freedom are intrinsically coupled to microscopic degrees of freedom. Unlike recent identities between irreversible work and free energy, such as in the Jarzynski relation, the macroscopic dynamics is not governed by an external action but undergoes the back reaction of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Our theorems cover such physical situations as impact between macroscopic bodies, thermodynamic machines, and molecular motors.Comment: 4 pages, RevTe
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