9,013 research outputs found

    A systematic map of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction

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    Funding: This work was funded by the European Society for Evolution (which funds a Special Topic Network on Evolutionary Ecology of Thermal Fertility Limits to CF, AB, RRS and TARP), the Natural Environment Research Council (NE/P002692/1 to TARP, AB and RRS, NE/X011550/1 to LRD and TARP), the Biotechnology and \Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/W016753/1 to AB, TARP and RRS) and a Heisenberg fellowship from the German Research Foundation (FR 2973/11-1 to CF).1. Exposure to extreme temperatures can negatively affect animal reproduction, by disrupting the ability of individuals to produce any offspring (fertility), or the number of offspring produced by fertile individuals (fecundity). This has important ecological consequences, because reproduction is the ultimate measure of population fitness: a reduction in reproductive output lowers the population growth rate and increases the extinction risk. Despite this importance, there have been no large‐scale summaries of the evidence for effect of temperature on reproduction. 2. We provide a systematic map of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction. We systematically searched for published studies that statistically test for a direct link between temperature and animal reproduction, in terms of fertility, fecundity or indirect measures of reproductive potential (gamete and gonad traits). 3. Overall, we collated a large and rich evidence base, with 1654 papers that met our inclusion criteria, encompassing 1191 species. 4. The map revealed several important research gaps. Insects made up almost half of the dataset, but reptiles and amphibians were uncommon, as were non‐arthropod invertebrates. Fecundity was the most common reproductive trait examined, and relatively few studies measured fertility. It was uncommon for experimental studies to test exposure of different life stages, exposure to short‐term heat or cold shock, exposure to temperature fluctuations, or to independently assess male and female effects. Studies were most often published in journals focusing on entomology and pest control, ecology and evolution, aquaculture and fisheries science, and marine biology. Finally, while individuals were sampled from every continent, there was a strong sampling bias towards mid‐latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, such that the tropics and polar regions are less well sampled. 5. This map reveals a rich literature of studies testing the relationship between temperature and animal reproduction, but also uncovers substantial missing treatment of taxa, traits, and thermal regimes. This database will provide a valuable resource for future quantitative meta‐analyses, and direct future studies aiming to fill identified gaps.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Technical note: Optimization functions for re‐irradiation treatment planning

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    Background Although re-irradiation is increasingly used in clinical practice, almost no dedicated planning software exists. Purpose Standard dose-based optimization functions were adjusted for re-irradiation planning using accumulated equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) with rigid or deformable dose mapping, tissue-specific α/ÎČ, treatment-specific recovery coefficients, and voxelwise adjusted EQD2 penalization levels based on the estimated previously delivered EQD2 (EQD2deliv). Methods To demonstrate proof-of-concept, 35 Gy in 5 fractions was planned to a fictitious spherical relapse planning target volume (PTV) in three separate locations following previous prostate treatment on a virtual human phantom. The PTV locations represented one repeated irradiation scenario and two re-irradiation scenarios. For each scenario, three re-planning strategies with identical PTV dose-functions but various organ at risk (OAR) EQD2-functions was used: 1) reRTregular: Regular functions with fixed EQD2 penalization levels larger than EQD2deliv for all OAR voxels. 2) reRTreduce: As reRTregular, but with lower fixed EQD2 penalization levels aiming to reduce OAR EQD2. 3) reRTvoxelwise: As reRTregular and reRTreduce, but with voxelwise adjusted EQD2 penalization levels based on EQD2deliv. PTV near-minimum and near-maximum dose (D98%/D2%), homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) and accumulated OAR EQD2 (α/ÎČ = 3 Gy) were evaluated. Results For the repeated irradiation scenario, all strategies resulted in similar dose distributions. For the re-irradiation scenarios, reRTreduce and reRTvoxelwise reduced accumulated average and near-maximum EQD2 by ˜1–10 Gy for all relevant OARs compared to reRTregular. The reduced OAR doses for reRTreduce came at the cost of distorted dose distributions with D98% = 92.3%, HI = 12.0%, CI = 73.7% and normal tissue hot spots ≄150% for the most complex scenario, while reRTregular (D98% = 98.1%, HI = 3.2%, CI = 94.2%) and reRTvoxelwise (D98% = 96.9%, HI = 6.1%, CI = 93.7%) fulfilled PTV coverage without hot spots. Conclusions The proposed re-irradiation-specific EQD2-based optimization functions introduce novel planning possibilities with flexible options to guide the trade-off between target coverage and OAR sparing with voxelwise adapted penalization levels based on EQD2deliv

    Tropical field stations yield high conservation return on investment

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    Conservation funding is currently limited; cost-effective conservation solutions are essential. We suggest that the thousands of field stations worldwide can play key roles at the frontline of biodiversity conservation and have high intrinsic value. We assessed field stations’ conservation return on investment and explored the impact of COVID-19. We surveyed leaders of field stations across tropical regions that host primate research; 157 field stations in 56 countries responded. Respondents reported improved habitat quality and reduced hunting rates at over 80% of field stations and lower operational costs per km2 than protected areas, yet half of those surveyed have less funding now than in 2019. Spatial analyses support field station presence as reducing deforestation. These ‘earth observatories’ provide a high return on investment; we advocate for increased support of field station programs and for governments to support their vital conservation efforts by investing accordingly

    Exposure and virologic outcomes of dolutegravir combined with ritonavir boosted darunavir in treatment-naive individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Acute HIV infection (NOVA)

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    To the authors' knowledge, there is currently no literature or guidance recommendation regard-ing whether the dose of dolutegravir (DTG) should be increased when co-administered with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) in patients with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (AHI). This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of twice-daily (BID) DTG and once-daily (QD) DRV/r, and com-pared this with DTG QD without DRV/r in patients with AHI. Forty-six participants initiated antiretro-viral therapy within < 24 h of enrolment: DTG 50 mg BID, DRV/r 80 0/10 0 mg QD, and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 4 weeks (Phase I); and DTG 50 mg QD with two NRTIs there-after (Phase II: reference). Total DTG trough concentration (Ctrough) and area under the concentration-time profile of 0-24 h (AUC0-24h) were predicted using a population PK model. DTG glucuronidation metabolic ratio (MR) and DTG free fraction were determined and compared per treatment phase using geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% confidence interval (CI). Participants had a predicted geometric mean steady-state DTG Ctrough of 2.83 [coefficient of variation (CV%) 30.3%] mg/L (Phase I) and 1.28 (CV% 52.4%) mg/L (Phase II), with GMR of 2.20 (90% CI 1.90-2.55). Total exposure during DTG BID increased but did not double [AUC0-24h GMR 1.65 (90% CI 1.50-1.81) h.mg/L]. DTG glucuronidation MR increased by approxi-mately 29% during Phase I. DTG Ctrough was above in-vivo EC90 (0.32 mg/L) during both phases, except in one participant during Phase I. At Week 8, 84% of participants had viral loads <= 40 copies/mL. The drug-drug interaction between DTG (BID) and DRV/r (QD) was due to induced glucuronidation, and is not clinically relevant in patients with AHI.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

    Renal Recovery for Patients with ANCA-Associated Vasculitis and Low eGFR in the ADVOCATE Trial of Avacopan

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    Exposure and virologic outcomes of dolutegravir combined with ritonavir boosted darunavir in treatment-naĂŻve individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Acute HIV infection (NOVA)

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    To the authors’ knowledge, there is currently no literature or guidance recommendation regarding whether the dose of dolutegravir (DTG) should be increased when co-administered with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) in patients with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (AHI). This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of twice-daily (BID) DTG and once-daily (QD) DRV/r, and compared this with DTG QD without DRV/r in patients with AHI. Forty-six participants initiated antiretroviral therapy within <24 h of enrolment: DTG 50 mg BID, DRV/r 800/100 mg QD, and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 4 weeks (Phase I); and DTG 50 mg QD with two NRTIs thereafter (Phase II: reference). Total DTG trough concentration (Ctrough) and area under the concentration–time profile of 0–24 h (AUC0–24h) were predicted using a population PK model. DTG glucuronidation metabolic ratio (MR) and DTG free fraction were determined and compared per treatment phase using geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% confidence interval (CI). Participants had a predicted geometric mean steady-state DTG Ctrough of 2.83 [coefficient of variation (CV%) 30.3%] mg/L (Phase I) and 1.28 (CV% 52.4%) mg/L (Phase II), with GMR of 2.20 (90% CI 1.90–2.55). Total exposure during DTG BID increased but did not double [AUC0–24h GMR 1.65 (90% CI 1.50–1.81) h.mg/L]. DTG glucuronidation MR increased by approximately 29% during Phase I. DTG Ctrough was above in-vivo EC90 (0.32 mg/L) during both phases, except in one participant during Phase I. At Week 8, 84% of participants had viral loads ≀40 copies/mL. The drug–drug interaction between DTG (BID) and DRV/r (QD) was due to induced glucuronidation, and is not clinically relevant in patients with AHI

    A phase IIb, open-label, randomized controlled dose ranging multi-centre trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of different doses of delpazolid in combination with bedaquiline delamanid moxifloxacin in adult subjects with newly diagnosed, uncomplicated, smear-positive, drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Background: Linezolid is an effective, but toxic anti-tuberculosis drug that is currently recommended for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Improved oxazolidinones should have a better safety profile, while preserving efficacy. Delpazolid is a novel oxazolidinone developed by LegoChem Biosciences Inc. that has been evaluated up to phase 2a clinical trials. Since oxazolidinone toxicity can occur late in treatment, LegoChem Biosciences Inc. and the PanACEA Consortium designed DECODE to be an innovative dose-ranging study with long-term follow-up for determining the exposure-response and exposure-toxicity relationship of delpazolid to support dose selection for later studies. Delpazolid is administered in combination with bedaquiline, delamanid and moxifloxacin. Methods: Seventy-five participants with drug-sensitive, pulmonary tuberculosis will receive bedaquiline, delamanid and moxifloxacin, and will be randomized to delpazolid dosages of 0 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, 1200 mg once daily, or 800 mg twice daily, for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the rate of decline of bacterial load on treatment, measured by MGIT liquid culture time to detection from weekly sputum cultures. The primary safety endpoint will be the proportion of oxazolidinone class toxicities; neuropathy, myelosuppression, or tyramine pressor response. Participants who convert to negative liquid media culture by week 8 will stop treatment after the end of their 16-week course and will be observed for relapse until week 52. Participants who do not convert to negative culture will receive continuation phase treatment with rifampicin and isoniazid to complete a six-month treatment course. Discussion: DECODE is an innovative dose-finding trial, designed to support exposure-response modelling for safe and effective dose selection. The trial design allows assessment of occurrence of late toxicities as observed with linezolid, which is necessary in clinical evaluation of novel oxazolidinones. The primary efficacy endpoint is the change in bacterial load, an endpoint conventionally used in shorter dose-finding trials. Long-term follow-up after shortened treatment is possible through a safety rule excluding slow-and non-responders from potentially poorly performing dosages

    Towards versatile access networks

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    Abstract Compared to its previous generations, the 5th generation (5G) cellular network features an additional type of densification, i.e., a large number of active antennas per access point (AP) can be deployed. This technique is known as massive multipleinput multiple-output (mMIMO) [1]. Meanwhile, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) evolution, e.g., in channel state information (CSI) enhancement, and also on the study of a larger number of orthogonal demodulation reference signal (DMRS) ports for MU-MIMO, was one of the Release 18 of 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP Rel-18) work item [2]. This release (3GPP Rel-18) package approval, in the fourth quarter of 2021, marked the start of the 5G Advanced evolution in 3GPP [3]. The other items in 3GPP Rel-18 are to study and add functionality in the areas of network energy savings, coverage, mobility support, multicast broadcast services, and positioning [2]
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