444 research outputs found

    A stringent upper limit to 18cm radio emission from the extrasolar planet system tau Bootis

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    Context: It has been speculated for many years that some extrasolar planets may emit strong cyclotron emission at low radio frequencies in the range 10-100 MHz. Despite several attempts no such emission has yet been seen. Aims: The hot Jupiter system tau Bootis is one of the nearest (d=15 pc) exoplanets known to date. The gravitational influence of this massive hot Jupiter (M=6 M_jup) has locked the star-planet system, making the star rotate in P~3.3 days, similar to the orbital period of the planet. From the well established correlation between stellar rotation and radio luminosity, it is conceivable that the tau Bootis system emits strong radio emission at significantly higher frequencies than currently probed, which we aimed to investigate with this work. Methods: We observed tau Bootis with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at a frequency of 1.7 GHz. for 12 hours in spectral line mode, reaching a noise level of 42 microJy/beam at the position of the target. Results: No 18cm radio emission is detected from tau Bootis, resulting in a 3 sigma upper limit of 0.13 mJy, corresponding to a 18cm radio luminosity of <3.7e13 erg/s/Hz. We observe tau Bootis to be two orders of magnitude fainter than expected from the stellar relation between radio luminosity and rotation velocity. Conclusions: This implies that either the tau Bootis system is underluminous in the radio compared to similar fast-rotating stars, or that we happened to observe the target during a low state of radio emission.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure: Accepted for publication in A&

    Neutral hydrogen gas, past and future star-formation in galaxies in and around the 'Sausage' merging galaxy cluster

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    CIZA J2242.8+5301 (z=0.188z = 0.188, nicknamed 'Sausage') is an extremely massive (M2002.0×1015MM_{200}\sim 2.0 \times 10^{15}M_\odot ), merging cluster with shock waves towards its outskirts, which was found to host numerous emission-line galaxies. We performed extremely deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI observations of the 'Sausage' cluster to investigate the effect of the merger and the shocks on the gas reservoirs fuelling present and future star formation (SF) in cluster members. By using spectral stacking, we find that the emission-line galaxies in the 'Sausage' cluster have, on average, as much HI gas as field galaxies (when accounting for the fact cluster galaxies are more massive than the field galaxies), contrary to previous studies. Since the cluster galaxies are more massive than the field spirals, they may have been able to retain their gas during the cluster merger. The large HI reservoirs are expected to be consumed within 0.751.0\sim0.75-1.0 Gyr by the vigorous SF and AGN activity and/or driven out by the out-flows we observe. We find that the star-formation rate in a large fraction of Hα\alpha emission-line cluster galaxies correlates well with the radio broad band emission, tracing supernova remnant emission. This suggests that the cluster galaxies, all located in post-shock regions, may have been undergoing sustained SFR for at least 100 Myr. This fully supports the interpretation proposed by Stroe et al. (2015) and Sobral et al. (2015) that gas-rich cluster galaxies have been triggered to form stars by the passage of the shock.Comment: Accepted to MNRAS, 14 pages, 9 figures, 7 table

    When galaxy clusters collide : the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

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    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.Galaxie

    A cartographical perspective to the engineering works at the Sulina mouth

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    Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Akadémiai Kiadó for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica 45 (2010): 71-79, doi:10.1556/AGeod.45.2010.1.11.From 1856 to 1939, the European Commission of the Danube (ECD), was responsible for technical surveys at the mouth of Sulina arm. During this period, ECD prepared general maps of Danube Delta as well as detailed charts for all the Danube mouths: Chilia, Sulina and Sf. Gheorghe (St. George) that were published in various reports or atlases. ECD used a local grid network benchmarked at Sulina, divided in 500 feet units. The reference point was the old lighthouse located on the right bank of Danube. After the Second World War, the Romanian authorities elaborated new cartographical products using the Gauss‐Kruger projection or Stereo‐70 like national grid. Our goal is to generate a cartographical background database necessary for refining the coastal evolution model of the Sulina mouth. To handle the large number of available maps, we chose GeoNetwork like a solution for catalog service, indexing and defining metadata. The service is operating at geo‐spatial.org

    SuzakuSuzaku X-ray study of the double radio relic galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301

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    Content: We present the results from SuzakuSuzaku observations of the merging cluster of galaxies CIZA J2242.8+5301 at zz=0.192. Aims. To study the physics of gas heating and particle acceleration in cluster mergers, we investigated the X-ray emission from CIZA J2242.8+5301, which hosts two giant radio relics in the northern/southern part of the cluster. Methods. We analyzed data from three-pointed Suzaku observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 to derive the temperature distribution in four different directions. Results: The Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) temperature shows a remarkable drop from 8.50.6+0.8_{-0.6}^{+0.8} keV to 2.70.4+0.7_{-0.4}^{+0.7} keV across the northern radio relic. The temperature drop is consistent with a Mach number Mn=2.70.4+0.7{\cal M}_n=2.7^{+0.7}_{-0.4} and a shock velocity vshock:n=2300400+700kms1v_{shock:n}=2300_{-400}^{+700}\rm\,km\,s^{-1}. We also confirm the temperature drop across the southern radio relic. However, the ICM temperature beyond this relic is much higher than beyond the northern one, which gives a Mach number Ms=1.70.3+0.4{\cal M}_s=1.7^{+0.4}_{-0.3} and shock velocity vshock:s=2040410+550kms1v_{shock:s}=2040_{-410}^{+550}\rm \,km\,s^{-1}. These results agree with other systems showing a relationship between the radio relics and shock fronts which are induced by merging activity. We compare the X-ray derived Mach numbers with the radio derived Mach numbers from the radio spectral index under the assumption of diffusive shock acceleration in the linear test particle regime. For the northern radio relic, the Mach numbers derived from X-ray and radio observations agree with each other. Based on the shock velocities, we estimate that CIZA J2242.8+5301 is observed approximately 0.6 Gyr after core passage. The magnetic field pressure at the northern relic is estimated to be 9% of the thermal pressure.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures, A&A accepte

    Quantum Effects Through a Fractal Theory of Motion

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    The rise and fall of star-formation in z0.2\bf z\sim0.2 merging galaxy clusters

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    CIZA J2242.8+5301 (`Sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`Toothbrush') are two low-redshift (z0.2z\sim0.2), massive (2×1015M\sim2\times10^{15}M_\odot), post-core passage merging clusters, which host shock waves traced by diffuse radio emission. To study their star-formation properties, we uniformly survey the `Sausage' and `Toothbrush' clusters in broad and narrow band filters and select a sample of 201201 and 463463 line emitters, down to a rest-frame equivalent width (1313{\AA}). We robustly separate between Hα\alpha and higher redshift emitters using a combination of optical multi-band (B, g, V, r, i, z) and spectroscopic data. We build Hα\alpha luminosity functions for the entire cluster region, near the shock fronts, and away from the shock fronts and find striking differences between the two clusters. In the dynamically younger, 11 Gyr old `Sausage' cluster we find numerous (5959) Hα\alpha emitters above a star-formation rate (SFR) of 0.170.17 M_{\sun} yr1^{-1} surprisingly located in close proximity to the shock fronts, embedded in very hot intra-cluster medium plasma. The SFR density for the cluster population is at least at the level of typical galaxies at z2z\sim2. Down to the same star-formation rate, the possibly dynamically more evolved `Toothbrush' cluster has only 99 Hα\alpha galaxies. The cluster Hα\alpha galaxies fall on the SFR-stellar mass relation z0.2z\sim0.2 for the field. However, the `Sausage' cluster has an Hα\alpha emitter density >20>20 times that of blank fields. If the shock passes through gas-rich cluster galaxies, the compressed gas could collapse into dense clouds and excite star-formation for a few 100100 Myr. This process ultimately leads to a rapid consumption of the molecular gas, accelerating the transformation of gas-rich field spirals into cluster S0s or ellipticals.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS after minor referee report. 21 pages, 15 figures, 5 table