178 research outputs found

    Prevalence and Clinical Consequences of Colistin Heteroresistance and Evolution into Full Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Colistin heteroresistance (HR) refers to a bacterial population comprised of several subpopulations with different levels of resistance to colistin. In this study, we discuss the classic form of HR, in which a resistant subpopulation exists within a predominantly susceptible population. We investigated the prevalence of colistin HR and its evolution into full resistance among 173 clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and examined the effect of HR on clinical outcomes. To determine HR, we performed population analysis profiling. Our results showed a high prevalence of HR (67.1%). To examine evolution of HR strains into full resistance, the HR strains were grown in colistin-containing broth, transferred onto colistin-containing plates, and colonies on these plates were transferred into colistin-free broth. Many of the HR strains (80.2%) evolved into full resistance, 17.2% reverted to HR, and 2.6% were borderline. We used logistic regression to compare 14-day clinical failure and 14-day mortality between patients infected by HR versus susceptible non-HR carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. In the subgroup of patients with bacteremia, HR was significantly associated with 14-day mortality. IMPORTANCE To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study to report on HR in Gram-negative bacteria. We described the prevalence of colistin HR in a large sample of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates, the evolution of many colistin HR isolates to a resistant phenotype following colistin exposure and withdrawal, and the clinical consequences of colistin HR. We found a high prevalence of HR among clinical carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates; most evolved into a resistant phenotype following colistin exposure and withdrawal. In patients treated with colistin, evolution of HR A. baumannii into full resistance could lead to higher rates of treatment failure and contribute to the reservoir of colistin-resistant pathogens in health care settings

    Global Cutaneous Mucormycosis: A Systematic Review

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    Cutaneous mucormycosis is the third most common clinical type of mucormycosis. The signs and symptoms vary widely, and it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to achieve a better outcome. We present a systematic review of its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment, analyzing cases published from 1958 until 2021. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and included 693 cases from 485 articles from 46 countries. Most publications were from North America (256 cases, 36.9%) and Asia (216 cases, 31.2%). The most common risk factors were diabetes mellitus (20%) and hematological malignancies (15.7%). However, a large proportion of published cases (275, 39.6%) had no identified underlying disease. The most common mode of transmission was trauma (54%), and 108 (15.6%) cases were healthcare-associated. In this review, 291 (42.5%) patients had localized infection, and 90 (13%) had disseminated mucormycosis. In Europe, N. America and S. America, the most common genus was Rhizopus spp., while in Asia it was Apophysomyces spp. (34.7%). Treatment was performed with antifungals, mainly amphotericin B, and/or surgery. Mortality was significantly lower when both antifungals and surgery were applied (29.6%). © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Excluded versus included patients in a randomized controlled trial of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: relevance to external validity

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    Background: Population external validity is the extent to which an experimental study results can be generalized from a specific sample to a defined population. In order to apply the results of a study, we should be able to assess its population external validity. We performed an investigator-initiated randomized controlled trial (RCT) (AIDA study), which compared colistin-meropenem combination therapy to colistin monotherapy in the treatment of patients infected with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In order to examine the study’s population external validity and to substantiate the use of AIDA study results in clinical practice, we performed a concomitant observational trial. Methods: The study was conducted between October 1st, 2013 and January 31st, 2017 (during the RCTs recruitment period) in Greece, Israel and Italy. Patients included in the observational arm of the study have fulfilled clinical and microbiological inclusion criteria but were excluded from the RCT due to receipt of colistin for > 96 h, refusal to participate, or prior inclusion in the RCT. Non-randomized cases were compared to randomized patients. The primary outcome was clinical failure at 14 days of infection onset. Results: Analysis included 701 patients. Patients were infected mainly with Acinetobacter baumannii [78.2% (548/701)]. The most common reason for exclusion was refusal to participate [62% (183/295)]. Non-randomized and randomized patients were similar in most of the demographic and background parameters, though randomized patients showed minor differences towards a more severe infection. Combination therapy was less common in non-randomized patients [31.9% (53/166) vs. 51.2% (208/406), p = 0.000]. Randomized patients received longer treatment of colistin [13 days (IQR 10–16) vs. 8.5 days (IQR 0–15), p = 0.000]. Univariate analysis showed that non-randomized patients were more inclined to clinical failure on day 14 from infection onset [82% (242/295) vs. 75.5% (307/406), p = 0.042]. After adjusting for other variables, non-inclusion was not an independent risk factor for clinical failure at day 14. Conclusion: The similarity between the observational arm and RCT patients has strengthened our confidence in the population external validity of the AIDA trial. Adding an observational arm to intervention studies can help increase the population external validity and improve implementation of study results in clinical practice. Trial registration: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01732250 on November 22, 2012

    Investigating the Association between Physical Health Comorbidities and Disability in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

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    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that an increased risk of physical comorbidities might have a key role in the association between severe mental illness (SMI) and disability. We examined the association between physical multimorbidity and disability in individuals with SMI. METHODS: Data were extracted from the clinical record interactive search system at South London and Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre. Our sample (n = 13,933) consisted of individuals who had received a primary or secondary SMI diagnosis between 2007 and 2018 and had available data for Health of Nations Outcome Scale (HoNOS) as disability measure. Physical comorbidities were defined using Chapters II–XIV of the International Classification of Diagnoses (ICD-10). RESULTS: More than 60 % of the sample had complex multimorbidity. The most common organ system affected were neurological (34.7%), dermatological (15.4%), and circulatory (14.8%). All specific comorbidities (ICD-10 Chapters) were associated with higher levels of disability, HoNOS total scores. Individuals with musculoskeletal, skin/dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, neurological, hematological, or circulatory disorders were found to be associated with significant difficulties associated with more than five HoNOS domains while others had a lower number of domains affected. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with SMI and musculoskeletal, skin/dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, neurological, hematological, or circulatory disorders are at higher risk of disability compared to those who do not have those comorbidities. Individuals with SMI and physical comorbidities are at greater risk of reporting difficulties associated with activities of daily living, hallucinations, and cognitive functioning. Therefore, these should be targeted for prevention and intervention programs

    Carbon assimilation, isotope discrimination, proline and lipid peroxidation contribution to barley (Hordeum vulgare) salinity tolerance

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    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits great adaptability to salt tolerance in marginal environments because of its great genetic diversity. Differences in main biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes, which could explain the different tolerance to soil salinity of 16 barley varieties, were examined during a two-year field experiment. The study was conducted in a saline soil with an electrical conductivity ranging from 7.3 to 11.5 dS/m. During the experiment, a number of different physiological and biochemical characteristics were evaluated when barley was at the two-to three-nodes growing stage (BBCH code 32–33). The results indicated that there were significant (p < 0.001) effects due to varieties for tolerance to salinity. Carbon isotopes discrimination was higher by 11.8% to 16.0% in salt tolerant varieties than that in the sensitive ones. Additionally, in the tolerant varieties, assimilation rates of CO2 and proline concentration were 200% and up to 67% higher than the sensitive varieties, respectively. However, in sensitive varieties, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were enhanced, indicating an increased lipid peroxidation. The expression of the genes Hsdr4, HvA1, and HvTX1 did not differ among barley varieties tested. This study suggests that the increased carbon isotopes discrimination, increased proline concentration (play an osmolyte source role), and decreased lipid peroxidation are traits that are associated with barley tolerance to soil salinity. Moreover, our findings that proline improves salt tolerance by up-regulating stress-protective enzymes and reducing oxidation of lipid membranes will encourage our hypothesis that there are specific mechanisms that can be co-related with the salt sensitivity or the tolerance of barley. Therefore, further research is needed to ensure the tolerance mechanisms that exclude NaCl in salt tolerant barley varieties and diminish accumulation of lipid peroxides through adaptive plant responses. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis treatment duration in haematology patients in Europe: An EFISG, IDWP-EBMT, EORTC-IDG and SEIFEM survey

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    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) optimal duration of antifungal treatment is not known. In a joint effort, four international scientific societies/groups performed a survey to capture current practices in European haematology centres regarding management of IPA. We conducted a cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire survey in 2017 to assess practices in sixteen European countries concerning IPA management in haematology patients including tools to evaluate treatment response, duration and discontinuation. The following four groups/societies were involved in the project: European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG), Infectious Diseases Working Party-European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (IDWP-EBMT), European Organisation for Research and Treatment-Infectious Disease group (EORTC-IDG) and Sorveglianza Epidemiologica Infezioni nelle Emopatie (SEIFEM). A total of 112 physicians from 14/16 countries answered the survey. Galactomannan antigen was available in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in most centres (106/112 [95%] and 97/112 [87%], respectively), quantitative Aspergillus PCR in 27/112 (24%) centres, β-D-glucan in 24/112 (21%) and positron emission tomography in 50/112 (45%). Treatment duration differed between haematological malignancies, with a median duration of 6 weeks [IQR 3-12] for patients with AML, 11 [4-12] for patients with allogenic stem cell transplantation and GvHD and 6 [3-12] for patients with lymphoproliferative disease. Treatment duration significantly differed according to country. Essential IPA biomarkers are not available in all European countries, and treatment duration is highly variable according to country. It will be important to provide guidelines to help with IPA treatment cessation with algorithms according to biomarker availability. © 2020 Blackwell Verlag Gmb

    Population pharmacokinetics of colistin and the relation to survival in critically ill patients infected with colistin susceptible and carbapenem-resistant bacteria

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    Objectives: The aim was to analyse the population pharmacokinetics of colistin and to explore the relationship between colistin exposure and time to death. Methods: Patients included in the AIDA randomized controlled trial were treated with colistin for severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. All subjects received a 9 million units (MU) loading dose, followed by a 4.5 MU twice daily maintenance dose, with dose reduction if creatinine clearance (CrCL) < 50 mL/min. Individual colistin exposures were estimated from the developed population pharmacokinetic model and an optimized two-sample per patient sampling design. Time to death was evaluated in a parametric survival analysis. Results: Out of 406 randomized patients, 349 contributed pharmacokinetic data. The median (90% range) colistin plasma concentration was 0.44 (0.14–1.59) mg/L at 15 minutes after the end of first infusion. In samples drawn 10 hr after a maintenance dose, concentrations were >2 mg/L in 94% (195/208) and 44% (38/87) of patients with CrCL ≤120 mL/min, and >120 mL/min, respectively. Colistin methanesulfonate sodium (CMS) and colistin clearances were strongly dependent on CrCL. High colistin exposure to MIC ratio was associated with increased hazard of death in the multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.07 (1.03–1.12)). Other significant predictors included SOFA score at baseline (HR 1.24 (1.19–1.30) per score increase), age and Acinetobacter or Pseudomonas as index pathogen. Discussion: The population pharmacokinetic model predicted that >90% of the patients had colistin concentrations >2 mg/L at steady state, but only 66% at 4 hr after start of treatment. High colistin exposure was associated with poor kidney function, and was not related to a prolonged survival. © 2020 The Author

    Population pharmacokinetics of colistin and the relation to survival in critically ill patients infected with colistin susceptible and carbapenem-resistant bacteria

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    Objectives: The aim was to analyse the population pharmacokinetics of colistin and to explore the relationship between colistin exposure and time to death. Methods: Patients included in the AIDA randomized controlled trial were treated with colistin for severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. All subjects received a 9 million units (MU) loading dose, followed by a 4.5 MU twice daily maintenance dose, with dose reduction if creatinine clearance (CrCL) < 50 mL/min. Individual colistin exposures were estimated from the developed population pharmacokinetic model and an optimized two-sample per patient sampling design. Time to death was evaluated in a parametric survival analysis. Results: Out of 406 randomized patients, 349 contributed pharmacokinetic data. The median (90% range) colistin plasma concentration was 0.44 (0.14–1.59) mg/L at 15 minutes after the end of first infusion. In samples drawn 10 hr after a maintenance dose, concentrations were >2 mg/L in 94% (195/208) and 44% (38/87) of patients with CrCL ≤120 mL/min, and >120 mL/min, respectively. Colistin methanesulfonate sodium (CMS) and colistin clearances were strongly dependent on CrCL. High colistin exposure to MIC ratio was associated with increased hazard of death in the multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.07 (1.03–1.12)). Other significant predictors included SOFA score at baseline (HR 1.24 (1.19–1.30) per score increase), age and Acinetobacter or Pseudomonas as index pathogen. Discussion: The population pharmacokinetic model predicted that >90% of the patients had colistin concentrations >2 mg/L at steady state, but only 66% at 4 hr after start of treatment. High colistin exposure was associated with poor kidney function, and was not related to a prolonged survival
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