3,062 research outputs found

    On the relational aspects of trust and trustworthiness: results from a laboratory experiment

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    Do we trust better-connected people more than others and are those who are better connected more trustworthy? Interaction in social networks affects trust as it helps reduce informational asymmetries and identify those whom to trust. It also provides channels for reciprocity where trustworthiness emerges as a relational rather than individual characteristic. We run a laboratory experiment in which trustors decide on how to allocate their endowment to five trustees both before and after a network formation phase. Our results show that trustors are influenced by the behaviour of trustees in the network formation phase: when the allocation is chosen after networks have been formed, trust is directed towards the most frequent connections of the trustor. However, when trustors' offers are anonymous, such increased trust is not reciprocated by trustees. This suggests that social connections do not signal a greater individual propensity to reciprocate trust, but rather provide channels for reciprocity which can only be activated when both trust and trustworthiness are not anonymous

    Thiol functionalised gold nanoparticles loaded with methotrexate for cancer treatment. From synthesis to in vitro studies on neuroblastoma cell lines

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    Hypothesis: Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalised with hydrophilic thiols can be used as drug delivery probes, thanks to their small size and hydrophilic character. AuNPs possess unique properties for their use in nanomedicine, especially in cancer treatment, as diagnostics and therapeutic tools. Experiments: Thiol functionalised AuNPs were synthesised and loaded with methotrexate (MTX). Spectroscopic and morphostructural characterisations evidenced the stability of the colloids upon interaction with MTX. Solid state (GISAXS, GIWAXS, FESEM, TEM, FTIR-ATR, XPS) and dispersed phase (UV-Vis, DLS, ζ-potential, NMR, SAXS) experiments allowed to understand structure-properties correlations. The nanoconjugate was tested in vitro (MTT assays) against two neuroblastoma cell lines: SNJKP and IMR5 with overexpressed n-Myc. Findings: Molar drug encapsulation efficiency was optimised to be >70%. A non-covalent interaction between the π system and the carboxylate moiety belonging to MTX and the charged aminic group of one of the thiols was found. The MTX loading slightly decreased the structural order of the system and increased the distance between the AuNPs. Free AuNPs showed no cytotoxicity whereas the AuNPs-MTX nanoconjugate had a more potent effect when compared to free MTX. The active role of AuNPs was evidenced by permeation studies: an improvement on penetration of the drug inside cells was evidenced

    Phytochemical analysis on the aerial parts of Teucrium capitatum L. with aspects of chemosystematics and ethnobotany

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    The phytochemical analysis on the aerial parts of Teucrium capitatum L. collected from a new population in Central Italy, led to the identification of eight compounds, i.e. pheophytin a (1), poliumoside (2), apigenin (3), luteolin (4), cirsimaritin (5), cirsiliol (6), 8-O-acetyl-harpagide (7) and teucardoside (8) belonging to four different classes of secondary metabolites. Pheophytin a (1) represents a newly identified compound in the genus whereas compounds (7–8) are newly identified compound in the species. The chemotaxonomic and ethnobotanical aspects relative to the presence of these compounds were widely discussed suggesting important conclusions for both

    Impact of Frailty on the Development of Proximal Junctional Failure: Does Frailty Supersede Achieving Optimal Realignment?

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    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) are often elderly, frail, and at elevated risk of adverse events perioperatively, with proximal junctional failure (PJF) occurring relatively frequently. Currently, the specific role of frailty in potentiating this outcome is poorly defined. PURPOSE: To determine if the benefits of optimal realignment in ASD, with respect to the development of PJF, can be offset by increasing frailty. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: Operative ASD patients (scoliosis >20°, SVA>5 cm, PT>25°, or TK>60°) fused to pelvis or below with available baseline (BL) and 2-year (2Y) radiographic and HRQL data were included. The Miller Frailty Index (FI) was used to stratify patients into 2 categories: Not Frail (FI 3). Proximal Junctional Failure (PJF) was defined using the Lafage criteria. Matched" and "unmatched" refers to ideal age-adjusted alignment post-operatively. Multivariable regression determined impact of frailty on development of PJF. RESULTS: 284 ASD patients met inclusion criteria (62.2yrs±9.9, 81%F, BMI: 27.5 kg/m2±5.3, ASD-FI: 3.4±1.5, CCI: 1.7±1.6). 43% of patients were characterized as Not Frail (NF) and 57% were characterized as Frail (F). PJF development was lower in the NF group compared to the F group, (7% vs. 18%; P=0.002). F patients had 3.2X higher risk of PJF development compared to NF patients (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-7.3, P=0.009). Controlling for baseline factors, F unmatched patients had a higher degree of PJF (OR: 1.4, 95% CI:1.02-1.8, P=0.03), however, with prophylaxis there was no increased risk. Adjusted analysis shows F patients when matched post-operatively in PI-LL had no significantly higher risk of PJF. CONCLUSIONS: An increasingly frail state is significantly associated with the development of PJF after corrective surgery for ASD. Optimal realignment may mitigate the impact of frailty on eventual PJF. Prophylaxis should be considered in frail patients who do not reach ideal alignment goals."UnknownNot hel

    TOPS fast timing plastic scintillators: time and light output performances

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    Organic plastic scintillators are largely exploited for fast timing detectors thanks to their short scintillation time with respect to inorganic crystals. Plastic scintillators are cheap to produce, light and easy to manipulate (any standard mechanical workshop can handle the cutting, polishing, etc.). Nowadays, fastest plastic scintillators available on the market are EJ-232 (Eljen Technology) and BC-422 (Saint Gobain) with a rise time of 350 ps, a decay time of 1.6 ns and a pulse width of 1.3 ns. Foreseen the performance improvement of timing detectors based on plastic scintillators, the development of faster scintillators can give a crucial contribution. TOPS is a project focused on the development of a new class of organic scintillators producing several liquid and solid samples. Comparing the light output and the timing properties of the samples exploiting minimum ionising particles, a selection of the highly performing TOPS scintillators has been investigated and characterised. The performance achieved with TOPS samples are extremely promising: a time resolution improvement from 10 up to 35% with respect to the EJ-232 has been demonstrated. In addition, an increase of light output has been obtained for all samples with a consequent potential improvement in energy resolution measurements of a factor up to 35%

    Hydrophilic Gold Nanoparticles as Anti-PD-L1 Antibody Carriers: Synthesis and Interface Properties

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    Amino and sulfonate ending groups thiols are used as functionalizing agents to stabilize of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), obtaining hydrophilic AuNPs with a 10–20 nm diameter range and tunable surface charge. The nanomaterial is extensively characterized from a physicochemical point of view by UV–Vis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and dynamic light scattering to investigate the bonding between the two thiols and the metal surface. Systems are also biologically characterized on human multiforme glioblastoma T98G cells to understand their behavior in cell culture for biomedical applications. NMR and XPS studies evidence the presence of amino ending thiols with different chain lengths, 6-amino-1-hexanethiol hydrochloride (6EA) or cysteamine (CY) and sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (3MPS) on the metal surface: the relative molar ratio between the thiols bound to the AuNPs (3MPS/6EA or 3MPS/CY) is measured. On selected samples, the anti-PD-L1 antibody is loaded using AuNPs/antibody combination in a 2:1 weight ratio. Comparing different AuNPs concentrations (10 and 50 µg mL−1), the effect on colony-forming capacity after 24 h exposure is evaluated. The synthesized AuNPs are nontoxic, and they do not affect cell proliferation. These small particles can be used for targeting, opening tangible and interesting perspectives for further biomedical studies

    Elemental fragmentation cross sections for a O-16 beam of 400 MeV/u kinetic energy interacting with a graphite target using the FOOT Delta E-TOF detectors

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    The study of nuclear fragmentation plays a central role in many important applications: from the study of Particle Therapy (PT) up to radiation protection for space (RPS) missions and the design of shielding for nuclear reactors. The FragmentatiOn Of Target (FOOT) collaboration aims to study the nuclear reactions that describe the interactions with matter of different light ions (like H-1, He-4, C-12, O-16) of interest for such applications, performing double differential fragmentation cross section measurements in the energy range of interest for PT and RPS. In this manuscript, we present the analysis of the data collected in the interactions of an oxygen ion beam of 400 MeV/u with a graphite target using a partial FOOT setup, at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research facility in Darmstadt. During the data taking the magnets, the silicon trackers and the calorimeter foreseen in the final FOOT setup were not yet available, and hence precise measurements of the fragments kinetic energy, momentum and mass were not possible. However, using the FOOT scintillator detectors for the time of flight (TOF) and energy loss (Delta E) measurements together with a drift chamber, used as beam monitor, it was possible to measure the elemental fragmentation cross sections. The reduced detector set-up and the limited available statistics allowed anyway to obtain relevant results, providing statistically significant measurements of cross sections eagerly needed for PT and RPS applications. Whenever possible the obtained results have been compared with existing measurements helping in discriminating between conflicting results in the literature and demonstrating at the same time the proper functioning of the FOOT Delta E-TOF system. Finally, the obtained fragmentation cross sections are compared to the Monte Carlo predictions obtained with the FLUKA software
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