2,063 research outputs found

    People need freshwater biodiversity

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    Freshwater biodiversity, from fish to frogs and microbes to macrophytes, provides a vast array of services to people. Mounting concerns focus on the accelerating pace of biodiversity loss and declining ecological function within freshwater ecosystems that continue to threaten these natural benefits. Here, we catalog nine fundamental ecosystem services that the biotic components of indigenous freshwater biodiversity provide to people, organized into three categories: material (food; health and genetic resources; material goods), nonmaterial (culture; education and science; recreation), and regulating (catchment integrity; climate regulation; water purification and nutrient cycling). If freshwater biodiversity is protected, conserved, and restored in an integrated manner, as well as more broadly appreciated by humanity, it will continue to contribute to human well-being and our sustainable future via this wide range of services and associated nature-based solutions to our sustainable future

    Climatic effects on the synchrony and stability of temperate headwater invertebrates over four decades

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    Important clues about the ecological effects of climate change can arise from understanding the influence of other Earth‐system processes on ecosystem dynamics but few studies span the inter‐decadal timescales required. We, therefore, examined how variation in annual weather patterns associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over four decades was linked to synchrony and stability in a metacommunity of stream invertebrates across multiple, contrasting headwaters in central Wales (UK). Prolonged warmer and wetter conditions during positive NAO winters appeared to synchronize variations in population and community composition among and within streams thereby reducing stability across levels of ecological organization. This climatically mediated synchronization occurred in all streams irrespective of acid–base status and land use, but was weaker where invertebrate communities were more functionally diverse. Wavelet linear models indicated that variation in the NAO explained up to 50% of overall synchrony in species abundances at a timescale of 4–6 years. The NAO appeared to affect ecological dynamics through local variations in temperature, precipitation and discharge, but increasing hydrochemical variability within sites during wetter winters might have contributed. Our findings illustrate how large‐scale climatic fluctuations generated over the North Atlantic can affect population persistence and dynamics in inland freshwater ecosystems in ways that transcend local catchment character. Protecting and restoring functional diversity in stream communities might increase their stability against warmer, wetter conditions that are analogues of ongoing climate change. Catchment management could also dampen impacts and provide options for climate change adaptation

    New orchids in the flora of Vietnam VII (Orchidaceae: tribes Cypripedieae, Cranichideae, Orchideae, and Collabieae)

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    Averyanov, Leonid V., Nguyen, Van Canh, Vuong, Truong Ba, Nguyen, Khang Sinh, Nuraliev, Maxim S., Nguyen, Cuong Huu, Ormerod, Paul A., Maisak, Tatiana V., Diep, Dinh Quang, Lyskov, Dmitry F., Nong, Duy Van (2023): New orchids in the flora of Vietnam VII (Orchidaceae: tribes Cypripedieae, Cranichideae, Orchideae, and Collabieae). Phytotaxa 619 (4): 255-276, DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.619.4.1, URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.619.4.

    EPOCHS VII: Discovery of high redshift (6.5<z<126.5 < z < 12) AGN candidates in JWST ERO and PEARLS data

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    We present an analysis of a sample of robust high redshift galaxies selected photometrically from the `blank' fields of the Prime Extragalactic Areas for Reionization Science (PEARLS) survey and Early Release Observations (ERO) data of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) with the aim of selecting candidate high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGN). Sources were identified from the parent sample using a threefold selection procedure, which includes spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to identify sources that are best fitted by AGN SED templates, a further selection based on the relative performance of AGN and non-AGN models, and finally morphological fitting to identify compact sources of emission, resulting in a purity-oriented procedure. Using this procedure, we identify a sample of nine AGN candidates at 6.5<z<126.5 < z < 12, from which we constrain their physical properties as well as measure a lower bound on the AGN fraction in this redshift range of 5±15 \pm 1\%. As this is an extreme lower limit due to our focus on purity and our SEDs being calibrated for unobscured Type 1 AGN, this demonstrates that AGN are perhaps quite common at this early epoch. The rest-frame UV colors of our candidate objects suggest that these systems are potentially candidate obese black hole galaxies (OBG), or AGN with very little galaxy component. We also investigate emission from our sample sources from fields overlapping with Chandra and VLA surveys, allowing us to place X-ray and 3 GHz radio detection limits on our candidates. Of note is a z=11.9z = 11.9 candidate source exhibiting an abrupt morphological shift in the reddest band as compared to the bluer bands, indicating a potential merger or an unusually strong outflow.Comment: Submitted to MNRAS, 12 pages, 11 figures, typos correcte

    Efficacy and safety of ciclosporin versus methotrexate in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis in children and young people (TREAT): a multicentre parallel group assessor-blinded clinical trial

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    Background Conventional systemic drugs are used to treat children and young people (CYP) with severe atopic dermatitis (AD) worldwide, but no robust randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence exists regarding their efficacy and safety in this population. While novel therapies have expanded therapeutic options, their high cost means traditional agents remain important, especially in lower-resource settings. Objectives To compare the safety and efficacy of ciclosporin (CyA) with methotrexate (MTX) in CYP with severe AD in the TREatment of severe Atopic Eczema Trial (TREAT) trial. Methods We conducted a parallel group assessor-blinded RCT in 13 UK and Irish centres. Eligible participants aged 2–16 years and unresponsive to potent topical treatment were randomized to either oral CyA (4 mg kg–1 daily) or MTX (0.4 mg kg–1 weekly) for 36 weeks and followed-up for 24 weeks. Co-primary outcomes were change from baseline to 12 weeks in Objective Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (o-SCORAD) and time to first significant flare (relapse) after treatment cessation. Secondary outcomes included change in quality of life (QoL) from baseline to 60 weeks; number of participant-reported flares following treatment cessation; proportion of participants achieving ≥ 50% improvement in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI 50) and ≥ 75% improvement in EASI (EASI 75); and stratification of outcomes by filaggrin status. Results In total, 103 participants were randomized (May 2016–February 2019): 52 to CyA and 51 to MTX. CyA showed greater improvement in disease severity by 12 weeks [mean difference in o-SCORAD –5.69, 97.5% confidence interval (CI) –10.81 to –0.57 (P = 0.01)]. More participants achieved ≥ 50% improvement in o-SCORAD (o-SCORAD 50) at 12 weeks in the CyA arm vs. the MTX arm [odds ratio (OR) 2.60, 95% CI 1.23–5.49; P = 0.01]. By 60 weeks MTX was superior (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.85; P = 0.02), a trend also seen for ≥ 75% improvement in o-SCORAD (o-SCORAD 75), EASI 50 and EASI 75. Participant-reported flares post-treatment were higher in the CyA arm (OR 3.22, 95% CI 0.42–6.01; P = 0.02). QoL improved with both treatments and was sustained after treatment cessation. Filaggrin status did not affect outcomes. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was comparable between both treatments. Five (10%) participants on CyA and seven (14%) on MTX experienced a serious AE. Conclusions Both CyA and MTX proved effective in CYP with severe AD over 36 weeks. Participants who received CyA showed a more rapid response to treatment, while MTX induced more sustained disease control after discontinuation

    Ventricular Conduction Stability Noninvasively Identifies an Arrhythmic Substrate in Survivors of Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation

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    Background Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a diagnosis of exclusion following normal cardiac investigations. We sought to determine if exercise‐induced changes in electrical substrate could distinguish patient groups with various ventricular arrhythmic pathophysiological conditions and identify patients susceptible to VF. Methods and Results Computed tomography and exercise testing in patients wearing a 252‐electrode vest were combined to determine ventricular conduction stability between rest and peak exercise, as previously described. Using ventricular conduction stability, conduction heterogeneity in idiopathic VF survivors (n=14) was compared with those surviving VF during acute ischemia with preserved ventricular function following full revascularization (n=10), patients with benign ventricular ectopy (n=11), and patients with normal hearts, no arrhythmic history, and negative Ajmaline challenge during Brugada family screening (Brugada syndrome relatives; n=11). Activation patterns in normal subjects (Brugada syndrome relatives) are preserved following exercise, with mean ventricular conduction stability of 99.2±0.9%. Increased heterogeneity of activation occurred in the idiopathic VF survivors (ventricular conduction stability: 96.9±2.3%) compared with the other groups combined (versus 98.8±1.6%; P=0.001). All groups demonstrated periodic variation in activation heterogeneity (frequency, 0.3–1 Hz), but magnitude was greater in idiopathic VF survivors than Brugada syndrome relatives or patients with ventricular ectopy (7.6±4.1%, 2.9±2.9%, and 2.8±1.2%, respectively). The cause of this periodicity is unknown and was not replicable by introducing exercise‐induced noise at comparable frequencies. Conclusions In normal subjects, ventricular activation patterns change little with exercise. In contrast, patients with susceptibility to VF experience activation heterogeneity following exercise that requires further investigation as a testable manifestation of underlying myocardial abnormalities otherwise silent during routine testing

    FIGURE 3. Myrmechis brachyscapa. A in New orchids in the flora of Vietnam VII (Orchidaceae: tribes Cypripedieae, Cranichideae, Orchideae, and Collabieae)

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    FIGURE 3. Myrmechis brachyscapa. A. Flowering plant in nature. B. Apical part of stem and inflorescence. C. Flattened flowering plants. D. Rhizome and basal part of stem. E. Leaves, adaxial and abaxial side. F. Floral bract. G. Inflorescence with intact flower, view from above. H. Flower, views from different sides. I. Median sepal and petals, side view. J. Column and lateral sepal. K. Column and lip, side view. L. Separated median sepal and petals, abaxial and adaxial side. M. Lateral sepal, adaxial side. N. Lip, views from different sides. O. Mesochile. P. Hypochile with internal glands. Q. Column, views from different sides. R. Anther cap, views from different sides. S. Pollinarium, views from different sides. Photos by T.B.Vuong and V.D.Thao made from plants used for the preparation of the type specimen (T.B.Vuong, V.D.Thao s.n.), photo correction and design by L.Averyanov and T.Maisak.Published as part of &lt;i&gt;Averyanov, Leonid V., Nguyen, Van Canh, Vuong, Truong Ba, Nguyen, Khang Sinh, Nuraliev, Maxim S., Nguyen, Cuong Huu, Ormerod, Paul A., Maisak, Tatiana V., Diep, Dinh Quang, Lyskov, Dmitry F. &amp; Nong, Duy Van, 2023, New orchids in the flora of Vietnam VII (Orchidaceae: tribes Cypripedieae, Cranichideae, Orchideae, and Collabieae), pp. 255-276 in Phytotaxa 619 (4)&lt;/i&gt; on page 262, DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.619.4.1, &lt;a href="http://zenodo.org/record/8430545"&gt;http://zenodo.org/record/8430545&lt;/a&gt

    PtII−N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes in Solvent-Free Alkene Hydrosilylation

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    International audienceHerein, we report the catalytic activity of a series of platinum(II) pre-catalysts, bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, in the alkene hydrosilylation reaction. Their structural and electronic properties are fully investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Next, our study presents a structure-activity relationship within this group of pre-catalysts and gives mechanistic insights into the catalyst activation step. An exceptional catalytic performance of one of the complexes is observed, reaching a turnover number (TON) of 970 000 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 40 417 h−1 at 1 ppm catalyst loading. Finally, an attractive solvent-free and open-to-air alkene hydrosilylation protocol, featuring efficient platinum removal (reduction of residual Pt from 582 ppm to 5.8 ppm), is disclosed

    Expression of ANK3 moderates the association between childhood trauma and affective traits in severe mental disorders

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    Abstract Exposure to early life trauma increases the risk of psychopathology later in life. Here we investigated if ANK3 mRNA levels influence the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and clinical characteristics in mental disorders. A sample of 174 patients with bipolar disorder and 291 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were included. Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and childhood trauma was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire. Age at illness onset and number of psychotic and affective episodes were assessed from interview and medical records. Current depressive symptoms were measured using the calgary depression scale for schizophrenia and the inventory for depressive symptomatology. ANK3 expression was analyzed in whole blood using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Analyses were carried out with the Process adjusted for confounders. Within the total sample, patients with both high ANK3 expression and with the most severe childhood sexual abuse had more manic/hypomanic episodes and an earlier age at onset of the first episode. ANK3 mRNA levels also moderated the relationship between emotional neglect and manic/hypomanic episodes. Our results suggest that ANK3 expression levels moderate the association between specific types of childhood trauma and affective traits in mental disorders
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