10,488 research outputs found

    Sex and recombination in the H\"otzel aging model

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    Why sex evolved and it prevails in nature remains one of the great puzzles of evolution. Most biologists would explain that it promotes genetic variability, however this explanation suffers from several difficulties. What advantages might sex confer? The present communication aims at certain investigations related to this question, in this way we introduce sexual recombination on the H\"otzel model (with males and females) and we compare these results with those from asexual reproduction without recombination.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure

    Phase transition in hierarchy model of Bonabeau et al

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    The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between egalitarian society at low population density and hierarchical society at high population density.Comment: 3 pages including two figs.; for Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    Self-organizing social hierarchies on scale-free networks

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    In this work we extend the model of Bonabeau et al. in the case of scale-free networks. A sharp transition is observed from an egalitarian to an hierarchical society, with a very low population density threshold. The exact threshold value also depends on the network size. We find that in an hierarchical society the number of individuals with strong winning attitude is much lower than the number of the community members that have a low winning probability

    The Penna model for biological ageing on a lattice: spatial consequences of child-care

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    We introduce a square lattice into the Penna bit-string model for biological ageing and study the evolution of the spatial distribution of the population considering different strategies of child-care. Two of the strategies are related to the movements of a whole family on the lattice: in one case the mother cannot move if she has any child younger than a given age, and in the other case if she moves, she brings these young children with her. A stronger condition has also been added to the second case, considering that young children die with a higher probability if their mothers die, this probability decreasing with age. We show that a highly non uniform occupation can be obtained when child-care is considered, even for an uniform initial occupation per site. We also compare the standard survival rate of the model with that obtained when the spacial lattice is considered (without any kind of child-care).Comment: 8 pages, 6 Postscript figure

    Applications and Sexual Version of a Simple Model for Biological Ageing

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    We use a simple model for biological ageing to study the mortality of the population, obtaining a good agreement with the Gompertz law. We also simulate the same model on a square lattice, considering different strategies of parental care. The results are in agreement with those obtained earlier with the more complicated Penna model for biological ageing. Finally, we present the sexual version of this simple model.Comment: For Int.J.Mod.Phys.C Dec. 2001; 11 pages including 6 fig

    Renormalizing Sznajd model on complex networks taking into account the effects of growth mechanisms

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    We present a renormalization approach to solve the Sznajd opinion formation model on complex networks. For the case of two opinions, we present an expression of the probability of reaching consensus for a given opinion as a function of the initial fraction of agents with that opinion. The calculations reproduce the sharp transition of the model on a fixed network, as well as the recently observed smooth function for the model when simulated on a growing complex networks.Comment: 5 pages, 7 figure

    Experimental characterization of the structural response of adobe arches

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    Earth was one of the first construction materials used by mankind and has been used as a building material since ancient times until the present days. Its qualities related to thermal comfort, low cost or simple construction techniques have contributed to such a long tradition throughout the world with several different architectural expressions, integrating the culture and history of each region. With the wide propagation of steel and concrete structures, there has been a general loss of the traditional knowledge in earth construction. This type of construction presents important structural fragilities and requires a special maintenance to preserve its qualities. In order to understand the structural behaviour of this type of structures, the associated construction methods and processes have to be considered. Aveiro University has been developing studies on adobe constructions, with research on the material mechanical characterization, experimental study of the structural behaviour of adobe masonry walls and, more recently, in the development of a detailed survey methodology for the characterization of buildings in Aveiro district. Integrated in these studies, arches with different geometries were built using adobe blocks and traditional construction methods. These arches were tested under different types of vertical loading (distributed symmetrical, distributed non-symmetrical and point load) until collapse. The experimental tests performed reproduce the typical loading conditions of these structures during construction and use. The tests conducted, the results obtained and the main conclusions attained are described in this paper

    Sympatric speciation in an age-structured population living on a lattice

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    A square lattice is introduced into the Penna model for biological aging in order to study the evolution of diploid sexual populations under certain conditions when one single locus in the individual's genome is considered as identifier of species. The simulation results show, after several generations, the flourishing and coexistence of two separate species in the same environment, i.e., one original species splits up into two on the same territory (sympatric speciation). As well, the mortalities obtained are in a good agreement with the Gompertz law of exponential increase of mortality with age.Comment: 5 pages including 3 encapsulated postscript (*.eps) figures; To appear in European Physical Journal
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