4,880 research outputs found

    Improving U.S. Housing Finance Through Reform of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: Assessing the Options

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    Presents criteria for evaluating proposals for reforming the two government-sponsored enterprises. Outlines the key arguments for their structural strengths and weaknesses, a framework and goals for reform, and features of specific proposals to date

    A Field Day for Gene-Edited Brassicas and Crop Improvement

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    Attitudes Toward Land Use Controls Among Ohio Farmers: A State Survey

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    Exact date of working paper unknown

    A New Frontier for Fat: Dietary Palmitic Acid induces innate immune memory

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    Dietary saturated fats have recently been appreciated for their ability to modify innate immune cell function, including monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Many dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) embark on a unique pathway through the lymphatics following digestion, and this makes them intriguing candidates for inflammatory regulation during homeostasis and disease. Specifically, palmitic acid (PA) and diets enriched in PA have recently been implicated in driving innate immune memory in mice. PA has been shown to induce long-lasting hyper-inflammatory capacity against secondary microbial stimuli in vitro and in vivo, and PA-enriched diets alter the developmental trajectory of stem cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Perhaps the most relevant finding is the ability of exogenous PA to enhance clearance of fungal and bacterial burdens in mice; however, the same PA treatment enhances endotoxemia severity and mortality. Westernized countries are becoming increasingly dependent on SFAenriched diets, and a deeper understanding of SFA regulation of innate immune memory is imperative in this pandemic era

    Engineering plant-based feedstocks for sustainable aquaculture

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    There is a growing recognition of the challenges associated with ensuring good nutrition for all without compromising the environment. This is particularly true for aquaculture, given the reliance on marine extraction for key feed ingredients, yet at the same time it delivers key nutrients such as omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review will consider progress in transitioning away from oceanic-derived fish oils as feed ingredients, focusing on the emerging transgenic plant sources of these fatty acids. Specific consideration is given to the “validation” phase of this process, in which oils from GM plants are used as substitutes for bona fide fish oils in aquafeed diets. Equally, consideration is given to the demonstration of “real-world” potential by GM field trials. Collectively, the status of these new plant-based sources of omega-3 fish oils confirm the arrival of a new wave of plant biotech products, 25 years after the introduction of herbicide-tolerant input traits and demonstrate the power of GM agriculture to contribute to food security and operating within planetary boundarie

    The Standing Wave Phenomenon in Radio Telescopes; Frequency Modulation of the WSRT Primary Beam

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    Inadequacies in the knowledge of the primary beam response of current interferometric arrays often form a limitation to the image fidelity. We hope to overcome these limitations by constructing a frequency-resolved, full-polarization empirical model for the primary beam of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Holographic observations, sampling angular scales between about 5 arcmin and 11 degrees, were obtained of a bright compact source (3C147). These permitted measurement of voltage response patterns for seven of the fourteen telescopes in the array and allowed calculation of the mean cross-correlated power beam. Good sampling of the main-lobe, near-in, and far-side-lobes out to a radius of more than 5 degrees was obtained. A robust empirical beam model was detemined in all polarization products and at frequencies between 1322 and 1457 MHz with 1 MHz resolution. Substantial departures from axi-symmetry are apparent in the main-lobe as well as systematic differences between the polarization properties. Surprisingly, many beam properties are modulated at the 5 to 10% level with changing frequency. These include: (1) the main beam area, (2) the side-lobe to main-lobe power ratio, and (3) the effective telescope aperture. These semi-sinusoidsal modulations have a basic period of about 17 MHz, consistent with the natural 'standing wave' period of a 8.75 m focal distance. The deduced frequency modulations of the beam pattern were verified in an independent long duration observation using compact continuum sources at very large off-axis distances. Application of our frequency-resolved beam model should enable higher dynamic range and improved image fidelity for interferometric observations in complex fields. (abridged)Comment: 12 pages, 11 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A, figures compressed to low resolution; high-resolution version available at: http://www.astro.rug.nl/~popping/wsrtbeam.pd

    Medium-term performance and maintenance of SUDS:a case-study of Hopwood Park Motorway Service Area, UK

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    One of the main barriers to implementing SUDS is concern about performance and maintenance costs since there are few well-documented case-studies. This paper summarizes studies conducted between 2000 and 2008 of the performance and maintenance of four SUDS management trains constructed in 1999 at the Hopwood Park Motorway Service Area, central England. Assessments were made of the wildlife value and sedimentation in the SUDS ponds, the hydraulic performance of the coach park management train, water quality in all management trains, and soil/sediment composition in the grass filter strip, interceptor and ponds. Maintenance procedures and costs were also reviewed. Results demonstrate the benefits of a management train approach over individual SUDS units for flow attenuation, water treatment, spillage containment and maintenance. Peak flows, pond sediment depth and contaminant concentrations in sediment and water decreased through the coach park management train. Of the 2007 annual landscape budget of £15,000 for the whole site, the maintenance costs for SUDS only accounted for £2,500 compared to £4,000 for conventional drainage structures. Furthermore, since sediment has been attenuated in the management trains, the cost of sediment removal after the recommended period of three years was only £554 and, if the design is not compromised, less frequent removal will be required in future

    Nutritional enhancement in plants – green and greener

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    The global challenges of ensuring sufficient safe and nutritious food for all are enshrined within the Sustainable Development Goals. As our planet's population continues to grow, and as the impacts of climate change and environmental pollution become more visible to all, new solutions continue to be sought as to how best address these. Transgenic crops specifically focussed on delivering health-beneficial compounds will likely play a role in this, and this review will consider several areas where good progress has been made. In particular, the transition from basic research to commercial product is a journey that more and more projects are embarking on, hopefully leading to the fulfilment of earlier promises as to the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to deliver improved human nutrition

    Managing the mining cycle using GeoVisionary

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    Managing the mining cycle from exploration through to evaluation, planning, construction, operation and finally mine closure can involve many datasets in different formats. To be able to visualise all of these different datasets in one environment is important to locate mineral/ore deposits, moderate risks, increase mining efficiency, monitor the impact on the surrounding environment and communicate these factors to stakeholders. Typically, GIS – Geographical Information Systems have been used to manage the life cycle of a mine, however the three dimensional (3D) complexity is lost in these two dimensional (2D) systems. Virtalis alongside the British Geological Survey, have developed the GeoVisionary software which provides the means to aid the management of many aspects of the life cycle of a mine using a combination 2D, 3D and 4D data in the same virtual environment
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