30 research outputs found

    Biogeographic and disease-specific alterations in epidermal lipid composition and single-cell analysis of acral keratinocytes.

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    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. Here, we used targeted lipid profiling to characterize the biogeographic alterations of human epidermal lipids across 12 anatomically distinct body sites, and we used single-cell RNA-Seq to compare keratinocyte gene expression at acral and nonacral sites. We demonstrate that acral skin has low expression of EOS acyl-ceramides and the genes involved in their synthesis, as well as low expression of genes involved in filaggrin and keratin citrullination (PADI1 and PADI3) and corneodesmosome degradation, changes that are consistent with increased corneocyte retention. Several overarching principles governing epidermal lipid expression were also noted. For example, there was a strong negative correlation between the expression of 18-carbon and 22-carbon sphingoid base ceramides. Disease-specific alterations in epidermal lipid gene expression and their corresponding alterations to the epidermal lipidome were characterized. Lipid biomarkers with diagnostic utility for inflammatory and precancerous conditions were identified, and a 2-analyte diagnostic model of psoriasis was constructed using a step-forward algorithm. Finally, gene coexpression analysis revealed a strong connection between lipid and immune gene expression. This work highlights (a) mechanisms by which the epidermis is uniquely adapted for the specific environmental insults encountered at different body surfaces and (b) how inflammation-associated alterations in gene expression affect the epidermal lipidome

    Glycan biomarkers of autoimmunity and bile acid-associated alterations of the human glycome: Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis-specific glycans.

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    We have recently introduced multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry as a novel tool for glycan biomarker research and discovery. Herein, we employ this technique to characterize the site-specific glycan alterations associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Glycopeptides associated with disease severity were also identified. Multinomial regression modelling was employed to construct and validate multi-analyte diagnostic models capable of accurately distinguishing PBC, PSC, and healthy controls from one another (AUC = 0.93 Â± 0.03). Finally, to investigate how disease-relevant environmental factors can influence glycosylation, we characterized the ability of bile acids known to be differentially expressed in PBC to alter glycosylation. We hypothesize that this could be a mechanism by which altered self-antigens are generated and become targets for immune attack. This work demonstrates the utility of the MRM method to identify diagnostic site-specific glycan classifiers capable of distinguishing even related autoimmune diseases from one another

    A Randomized Trial of Combined PD-L1 and CTLA-4 Inhibition with Targeted Low-Dose or Hypofractionated Radiation for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal CancerPD-L1/CTLA-4 Inhibition with Radiation for Colorectal Cancer

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    PurposeProspective human data are lacking regarding safety, efficacy, and immunologic impacts of different radiation doses administered with combined PD-L1/CTLA-4 blockade.Patients and methodsWe performed a multicenter phase II study randomly assigning patients with metastatic microsatellite stable colorectal cancer to repeated low-dose fractionated radiation (LDFRT) or hypofractionated radiation (HFRT) with PD-L1/CTLA-4 inhibition. The primary endpoint was response outside the radiation field. Correlative samples were analyzed using multiplex immunofluorescence (IF), IHC, RNA/T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), and Olink.ResultsEighteen patients were evaluable for response. Median lines of prior therapy were four (range, 1-7). Sixteen patients demonstrated toxicity potentially related to treatment (84%), and 8 patients had grade 3-4 toxicity (42%). Best response was stable disease in 1 patient with out-of-field tumor shrinkage. Median overall survival was 3.8 months (90% confidence interval, 2.3-5.7 months). Correlative IF and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed increased infiltration of CD8+ and CD8+/PD-1+/Ki-67+ T cells in the radiation field after HFRT. LDFRT increased foci of micronuclei/primary nuclear rupture in two subjects. CyTOF and RNA-seq demonstrated significant declines in multiple circulating immune populations, particularly in patients receiving HFRT. TCR sequencing revealed treatment-associated changes in T-cell repertoire in the tumor and peripheral blood.ConclusionsWe demonstrate the feasibility and safety of adding LDFRT and HFRT to PD-L1/CTLA-4 blockade. Although the best response of stable disease does not support the use of concurrent PD-L1/CTLA-4 inhibition with HFRT or LDFRT in this population, biomarkers provide support that both LDFRT and HFRT impact the local immune microenvironment and systemic immunogenicity that can help guide future studies

    Epicutaneous Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-36 to enhance IgE production and ensuing allergic disease

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    IgE induced by type 2 immune responses in atopic dermatitis is implicated in the progression of atopic dermatitis to other allergic diseases, including food allergies, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. However, the keratinocyte-derived signals that promote IgE and ensuing allergic diseases remain unclear. Herein, in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous Staphylococcus aureus exposure, keratinocyte release of IL‑36α along with IL-4 triggered B cell IgE class-switching, plasma cell differentiation, and increased serum IgE levels-all of which were abrogated in IL-36R-deficient mice or anti-IL‑36R-blocking antibody-treated mice. Moreover, skin allergen sensitization during S. aureus epicutaneous exposure-induced IL-36 responses was required for the development of allergen-specific lung inflammation. In translating these findings, elevated IL‑36 cytokines in human atopic dermatitis skin and in IL‑36 receptor antagonist-deficiency patients coincided with increased serum IgE levels. Collectively, keratinocyte-initiated IL‑36 responses represent a key mechanism and potential therapeutic target against allergic diseases

    IL-1β Induces the Rapid Secretion of the Antimicrobial Protein IL-26 from Th17 Cells

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    © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Th17 cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response against extracellular bacteria, and the possible mechanisms by which they can protect against infection are of particular interest. In this study, we describe, to our knowledge, a novel IL-1b dependent pathway for secretion of the antimicrobial peptide IL-26 from human Th17 cells that is independent of and more rapid than classical TCR activation. We find that IL-26 is secreted 3 hours after treating PBMCs with Mycobacterium leprae as compared with 48 hours for IFN-g and IL-17A. IL-1b was required for microbial ligand induction of IL-26 and was sufficient to stimulate IL-26 release from Th17 cells. Only IL-1RI+ Th17 cells responded to IL-1b, inducing an NF-kB–regulated transcriptome. Finally, supernatants from IL-1b–treated memory T cells killed Escherichia coli in an IL-26–dependent manner. These results identify a mechanism by which human IL-1RI+ “antimicrobial Th17 cells” can be rapidly activated by IL-1b as part of the innate immune response to produce IL-26 to kill extracellular bacteria

    Mechanisms by Which Obesity Promotes Acute Graft-<i>Versus</i>-Host Disease in Mice.

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    The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by the occurrence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have recently demonstrated that obesity results in exacerbated acute gastrointestinal GVHD in both mouse models and clinical outcomes due to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and microbiota alterations. We therefore wanted to delineate the role of the various parameters in obesity, adiposity, effects of high-fat (HF) diet, and the role of microbiome on GVHD pathogenesis, by taking advantage of a mouse strain resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO). Female BALB/c mice are resistant to DIO phenotype with approximately 50% becoming DIO under HF diets. The DIO-susceptible recipients rapidly succumb to acute gut GVHD, whereas the DIO-resistant recipient littermates, which do not become obese, are partially protected from GVHD, indicating that being on HF diet alone contributes to but is not the primary driver of GVHD. Microbiome assessment revealed restricted diversity in both cohorts of mice, but coprophagy normalizes the microbiota in mice housed together. We then individually housed DIO-resistant, DIO-susceptible, and lean control mice. Notably, each of the individually housed groups demonstrates marked restricted diversity that has been shown to occur from the stress of single housing. Despite the restricted microbiome diversity, the GVHD pathogenesis profile remains consistent in the group-housed mice, with the lean control single-housed mice exhibiting no acute GVHD and DIO-resistant recipients showing again partial protection. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of obesity on acute gut GVHD are critically dependent on adiposity with the HF diet also playing a lesser role, and the microbiome alterations with obesity instead appear to fuel ongoing acute GVHD processes

    A site-specific map of the human plasma glycome and its age and gender-associated alterations.

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    Alterations in the human glycome have been associated with cancer and autoimmunity. Thus, constructing a site-specific map of the human glycome for biomarker research and discovery has been a highly sought-after objective. However, due to analytical barriers, comprehensive site-specific glycoprofiling is difficult to perform. To develop a platform to detect easily quantifiable, site-specific, disease-associated glycan alterations for clinical applications, we have adapted the multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry method for use in glycan biomarker research. The adaptations allow for highly precise site-specific glycan monitoring with minimum sample prep. Using this technique, we successfully mapped out the relative abundances of the most common 159 glycopeptides in the plasma of 97 healthy volunteers. This plasma glycome map revealed 796 significant (FDR &lt; 0.05) site-specific inter-protein and intra-protein glycan associations, of which the vast majority were previously unknown. Since age and gender are relevant covariants in biomarker research, these variables were also characterized. 13 glycopeptides were found to be associated with gender and 41 to be associated with age. Using just five age-associated glycopeptides, a highly accurate age prediction model was constructed and validated (r2 = 0.62 ±&nbsp;0.12). The human plasma site-specific glycan map described herein has utility in applications ranging from glycan biomarker research and discovery to the development of novel glycan-altering interventions

    Obesity induces gut microbiota alterations and augments acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

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    The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The impact of obesity on allo-HSCT outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we report that obesity had a negative and selective impact on acute gut GVHD after allo-HSCT in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). These animals exhibited increased gut permeability, endotoxin translocation across the gut, and radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage after allo-HSCT. After allo-HSCT, both male and female DIO mouse recipients showed increased proinflammatory cytokine production and expression of the GVHD marker ST2 (IL-33R) and MHC class II molecules; they also exhibited decreased survival associated with acute severe gut GVHD. This rapid-onset, obesity-associated gut GVHD depended on donor CD4+ T cells and occurred even with a minor MHC mismatch between donor and recipient animals. Retrospective analysis of clinical cohorts receiving allo-HSCT transplants from unrelated donors revealed that recipients with a high body mass index (BMI, &gt;30) had reduced survival and higher serum ST2 concentrations compared with nonobese transplant recipients. Assessment of both DIO mice and allo-HSCT recipients with a high BMI revealed reduced gut microbiota diversity and decreased Clostridiaceae abundance. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment protected DIO mouse recipients from endotoxin translocation across the gut and increased inflammatory cytokine production, as well as gut pathology and mortality, but did not protect against later development of chronic skin GVHD. These results suggest that obesity-induced alterations of the gut microbiota may affect GVHD after allo-HSCT in DIO mice, which could be ameliorated by prophylactic antibiotic treatment
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