4,031 research outputs found

    Measurement of the low-energy antitriton inelastic cross section

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    The high energy X-ray probe (HEX-P): probing the physics of the X-ray corona in active galactic nuclei

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    © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/The hard X-ray emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and black hole X-ray binaries is thought to be produced by a hot cloud of electrons referred to as the corona. This emission, commonly described by a power law with a high-energy cutoff, is suggestive of Comptonization by thermal electrons. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin, geometry, and composition of the corona, we still lack a clear understanding of this fundamental component. NuSTAR has been playing a key role improving our knowledge of X-ray coronæ thanks to its unprecedented sensitivity above 10 keV. However, these constraints are limited to bright, nearby sources. The High Energy X-ray Probe (HEX-P) is a probe-class mission concept combining high spatial resolution X-ray imaging and broad spectral coverage (0.2–80 keV) with a sensitivity superior to current facilities. In this paper, we highlight the major role that HEX-P will play in further advancing our insights of X-ray coronæ notably in AGN. We demonstrate how HEX-P will measure key properties and track the temporal evolution of coronæ in unobscured AGN. This will allow us to determine their electron distribution and test the dominant emission mechanisms. Furthermore, we show how HEX-P will accurately estimate the coronal properties of obscured AGN in the local Universe, helping address fundamental questions about AGN unification. In addition, HEX-P will characterize coronæ in a large sample of luminous quasars at cosmological redshifts for the first time and track the evolution of coronæ in transient systems in real time. We also demonstrate how HEX-P will enable estimating the coronal geometry using spectral-timing techniques. HEX-P will thus be essential to understand the evolution and growth of black holes over a broad range of mass, distance, and luminosity, and will help uncover the black holes’ role in shaping the Universe.Peer reviewe

    Event-by-event correlations between Λ\Lambda (Λˉ\bar{\Lambda}) hyperon global polarization and handedness with charged hadron azimuthal separation in Au+Au collisions at sNN=27 GeV\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 27 \text{ GeV} from STAR

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    Global polarizations (PP) of Λ\Lambda (Λˉ\bar{\Lambda}) hyperons have been observed in non-central heavy-ion collisions. The strong magnetic field primarily created by the spectator protons in such collisions would split the Λ\Lambda and Λˉ\bar{\Lambda} global polarizations (ΔP=PΛPΛˉ<0\Delta P = P_{\Lambda} - P_{\bar{\Lambda}} < 0). Additionally, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts topological charge fluctuations in vacuum, resulting in a chirality imbalance or parity violation in a local domain. This would give rise to an imbalance (Δn=NLNRNL+NR0\Delta n = \frac{N_{\text{L}} - N_{\text{R}}}{\langle N_{\text{L}} + N_{\text{R}} \rangle} \neq 0) between left- and right-handed Λ\Lambda (Λˉ\bar{\Lambda}) as well as a charge separation along the magnetic field, referred to as the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This charge separation can be characterized by the parity-even azimuthal correlator (Δγ\Delta\gamma) and parity-odd azimuthal harmonic observable (Δa1\Delta a_{1}). Measurements of ΔP\Delta P, Δγ\Delta\gamma, and Δa1\Delta a_{1} have not led to definitive conclusions concerning the CME or the magnetic field, and Δn\Delta n has not been measured previously. Correlations among these observables may reveal new insights. This paper reports measurements of correlation between Δn\Delta n and Δa1\Delta a_{1}, which is sensitive to chirality fluctuations, and correlation between ΔP\Delta P and Δγ\Delta\gamma sensitive to magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at 27 GeV. For both measurements, no correlations have been observed beyond statistical fluctuations.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures; paper from the STAR Collaboratio

    Production of K S 0 KS0 {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 , Λ ( Λ ¯ Λ \overline{\Lambda} ), Ξ ± , and Ω ± in jets and in the underlying event in pp and p–Pb collisions

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    Abstract The production of strange hadrons ( K S 0 KS0 {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 , Λ, Ξ ± , and Ω ± ), baryon-to-meson ratios (Λ/ K S 0 KS0 {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 , Ξ/ K S 0 KS0 {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 , and Ω/ K S 0 KS0 {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 ), and baryon-to-baryon ratios (Ξ/Λ, Ω/Λ, and Ω/Ξ) associated with jets and the underlying event were measured as a function of transverse momentum (p T) in pp collisions at s s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV and p Pb collisions at s NN sNN \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The inclusive production of the same particle species and the corresponding ratios are also reported. The production of multi-strange hadrons, Ξ ± and Ω ± , and their associated particle ratios in jets and in the underlying event are measured for the first time. In both pp and p–Pb collisions, the baryon-to-meson and baryon-to-baryon yield ratios measured in jets differ from the inclusive particle production for low and intermediate hadron p T (0.6–6 GeV/c). Ratios measured in the underlying event are in turn similar to those measured for inclusive particle production. In pp collisions, the particle production in jets is compared with Pythia 8 predictions with three colour-reconnection implementation modes. None of them fully reproduces the data in the measured hadron p T region. The maximum deviation is observed for Ξ ± and Ω ± which reaches a factor of about six. The event multiplicity dependence is further investigated in p−Pb collisions. In contrast to what is observed in the underlying event, there is no significant event-multiplicity dependence for particle production in jets. The presented measurements provide novel constraints on hadronisation and its Monte Carlo description. In particular, they demonstrate that the fragmentation of jets alone is insufficient to describe the strange and multi-strange particle production in hadronic collisions at LHC energies

    Measurement of the production of (anti)nuclei in p–Pb collisions at sNN=8.16TeV

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    Measurements of (anti)proton, (anti)deuteron, and (anti)3He production in the rapidity range −1<y<0 as a function of the transverse momentum and event multiplicity in p–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon pair sNN=8.16TeV are presented. The coalescence parameters B2 and B3, measured as a function of the transverse momentum per nucleon and of the mean charged-particle multiplicity density, confirm a smooth evolution from low to high multiplicity across different collision systems and energies. The ratios between (anti)deuteron and (anti)3He yields and those of (anti)protons are also reported as a function of the mean charged-particle multiplicity density. A comparison with the predictions of the statistical hadronization and coalescence models for different collision systems and center-of-mass energies favors the coalescence description for the deuteron-to-proton yield ratio with respect to the canonical statistical model

    Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations of identified hadrons in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV