11,542 research outputs found

    Restoring Time Dependence into Quantum Cosmology

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    Mini superspace cosmology treats the scale factor a(t)a(t), the lapse function n(t)n(t), and an optional dilation field ϕ(t)\phi(t) as canonical variables. While pre-fixing n(t)n(t) means losing the Hamiltonian constraint, pre-fixing a(t)a(t) is serendipitously harmless at this level. This suggests an alternative to the Hartle-Hawking approach, where the pre-fixed a(t)a(t) and its derivatives are treated as explicit functions of time, leaving n(t)n(t) and a now mandatory ϕ(t)\phi(t) to serve as canonical variables. The naive gauge pre-fix a(t)=consta(t)=const is clearly forbidden, causing evolution to freeze altogether, so pre-fixing the scale factor, say a(t)=ta(t)=t, necessarily introduces explicit time dependence into the Lagrangian. Invoking Dirac's prescription for dealing with constraints, we construct the corresponding mini superspace time dependent total Hamiltonian, and calculate the Dirac brackets, characterized by {n,ϕ}D0\{n,\phi\}_D\neq 0, which are promoted to commutation relations in the quantum theory.Comment: Honorable Mentioned essay - Gravity Research Foundation 201

    Landscape Predictions from Cosmological Vacuum Selection

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    In BP models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to "staggering", an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, v4 prd format, minor editin

    A Toy Model for Open Inflation

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    The open inflation scenario based on the theory of bubble formation in the models of a single scalar field suffered from a fatal defect. In all the versions of this scenario known so far, the Coleman-De Luccia instantons describing the creation of an open universe did not exist. We propose a simple one-field model where the CDL instanton does exist and the open inflation scenario can be realized.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, revtex, a discussion of density perturbations is extende

    False Vacuum Chaotic Inflation: The New Paradigm?

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    Recent work is reported on inflation model building in the context of supergravity and superstrings, with special emphasis on False Vacuum (`Hybrid') Chaotic Inflation. Globally supersymmetric models do not survive in generic supergravity theories, but fairly simple conditions can be formulated which do ensure successful supergravity inflation. The conditions are met in some of the versions of supergravity that emerge from superstrings.Comment: 4 pages, LATEX, LANCASTER-TH 94-1

    Courts and Torts: Public Policy Without Public Politics?

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    End of multi-field inflation and the perturbation spectrum

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    We investigate the dynamics of inflation models driven by multiple, decoupled scalar fields and calculate the Hubble parameter and the amplitude of the lightest field at the end of inflation which may be responsible for interesting, or possibly dangerous cosmological consequences after inflation. The results are very simple and similar to those of the single field inflation, mainly depend on the underlying spectrum of the masses. The mass distribution is heavily constrained by the power spectrum of density perturbations P and the spectral index n. The overall mass scale gives the amplitude of P, and n is affected by the number of fields and the spacing between masses in the distribution. The drop-out effect of the massive fields makes the perturbation spectrum typically redder than the single field inflation spectrum. We illustrate this using two different mass distributions.Comment: (v1) 16 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables; (v2) 17 pages, references added, typos corrected; (v3) references added, typos corrected; (v4) 16 pages, typos corrected, Table 1 expanded and Table 3 removed, Figs. 2 and 3 reduced, to appear in Physical Review

    Stochastic inflation on the brane

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    Chaotic inflation on the brane is considered in the context of stochastic inflation. It is found that there is a regime in which eternal inflation on the brane takes place. The corresponding probability distributions are found in certain cases. The stationary probability distribution over a comoving volume and the creation probability of a de Sitter braneworld yield the same exponential behaviour. Finally, nonperturbative effects are briefly discussed.Comment: 9 page

    Unambiguous probabilities in an eternally inflating universe

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    ``Constants of Nature'' and cosmological parameters may in fact be variables related to some slowly-varying fields. In models of eternal inflation, such fields will take different values in different parts of the universe. Here I show how one can assign probabilities to values of the ``constants'' measured by a typical observer. This method does not suffer from ambiguities previously discussed in the literature.Comment: 7 pages, Final version (minor changes), to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Cosmological Higgs fields

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    We present a time-dependent solution to the coupled Einstein-Higgs equations for general Higgs-type potentials in the context of flat FRW cosmological models. Possible implications are discussed.Comment: 5 pages, no figures. Version to be published in Phys. Rev. Lett. Changes: references and citations added; introduction partly modified; expanded discussion of relations between parameters in the Higgs potentia

    Measure Problem for Eternal and Non-Eternal Inflation

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    We study various probability measures for eternal inflation by applying their regularization prescriptions to models where inflation is not eternal. For simplicity we work with a toy model describing inflation that can interpolate between eternal and non-eternal inflation by continuous variation of a parameter. We investigate whether the predictions of four different measures (proper time, scale factor cutoff, stationary and causal {diamond}) change continuously with the change of this parameter. We will show that {only} for the stationary measure the predictions change continuously. For the proper-time and the scale factor cutoff, the predictions are strongly discontinuous. For the causal diamond measure, the predictions are continuous only if the stage of the slow-roll inflation is sufficiently long.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure
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