1,155 research outputs found

    Logics, rhetoric and 'the blob': populist logic in the Conservative reforms to English schooling

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    A lot has been written about the lasting implications of the Conservative reforms to English schooling, particularly changes made by Michael Gove as Education Secretary (2010–2014). There is a lot less work, however, on studying the role that language, strategy and the broader political framework played in the process of instituting and winning consent for these reforms. Studying these factors is important for ensuring that any changes to education and schooling are not read in isolation from their political context. Speeches particularly capture moments where intellectual and strategic political traditions meet, helping us to form a richer understanding of the motives behind specific reform goals and where they fit into a political landscape. This article analyses speeches and policy documents from prominent politicians who led the Conservative education agenda between 2010–2014 to illustrate how politicians mobilised a deliberate populist strategy and argumentation to achieve specific educational goals, but which have had broader social and political implications. Concepts from interpretive political studies are used to develop a case analysis of changes to teacher training provision and curriculum reform, illustrating how politicians constructed a frontier between ‘the people’ (commonly teachers or parents) and an illegitimate ‘elite’ (an educational establishment) that opposed change. This anti‐elite populist rhetoric, arguably first tested in the Department for Education, has now become instituted more widely in our current British politics

    Housing Market Study: City of Lansing

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    Nuclear shape dependence of Gamow-Teller distributions in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes

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    We study Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the neutron-deficient even isotopes (184-194)Pb in a search for signatures of deformation. The microscopic formalism used is based on a deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) approach, which involves a self-consistent quasiparticle deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) basis and residual spin-isospin forces in both the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. By analyzing the sensitivity of the Gamow-Teller strength distributions to the various ingredients in the formalism, we conclude that the beta-decay of these isotopes could be a useful tool to look for fingerprints of nuclear deformation.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures. To be published in Physical Review

    FINDIF : a software package to create synthetic seismograms by finite differences

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    In order to study seismic wave propagation through laterally varying sea floor structures, a software package has been created to generate synthetic seismograms by finite differences. The elastic wave equation can be solved in two dimensions either for point sources in cylindrical coordinates or for line sources in rectangular coordinates. Vertical and radial variations of the elastic parameters are allowed. The package includes four programs. Input to the system consists of a short file containing parameter values to describe the model. The first program is used to initialize the system for the particular model being used. The source arrays and velocity matrices are each computed by a separate program. The final program, which actually carries out the finite difference calculations, includes six subroutines to implement different options based on alternative finite difference formulations. Two different kinds of output files are created by this program: one or more snap-shot files, and one time series file, which will usually include more than one series.Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-79-C-0071; NR 083-004

    The effect of distance on observed mortality, childhood pneumonia and vaccine efficacy in rural Gambia.

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    We investigated whether straight-line distance from residential compounds to healthcare facilities influenced mortality, the incidence of pneumonia and vaccine efficacy against pneumonia in rural Gambia. Clinical surveillance for pneumonia was conducted on 6938 children living in the catchment areas of the two largest healthcare facilities. Deaths were monitored by three-monthly home visits. Children living >5 km from the two largest healthcare facilities had a 2·78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·74-4·43] times higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to children living within 2 km of these facilities. The observed rate of clinical and radiological pneumonia was lower in children living >5 km from these facilities compared to those living within 2 km [rate ratios 0·65 (95% CI 0·57-0·73) and 0·74 (95% CI 0·55-0·98), respectively]. There was no association between distance and estimated pneumococcal vaccine efficacy. Geographical access to healthcare services is an important determinant of survival and pneumonia in children in rural Gambia

    Convergent evolution of an ant-plant mutualism across plant families, continents and time

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    Questions: How often has dispersal of seeds by ants evolved in monocots and is the timing of origins associated with changes in the ant community or instead with the rise of forests? Are patterns in the origin of elaiosomes (the trait associated with the dispersal of seeds by ants) through time similar to those for the origins of fleshy fruits? Data studied: We estimate the timing of the origin of elaiosomes and fleshy fruits respectivelyby mapping seed morphology onto a recent phylogeny based on ndhF sequence data forthe monocots (Givnish et al., 2005). For comparison, we use fossil data on ant relativeabundance through time and phylogenetic data for the timing of the origin of seed-dispersing ant lineages. Search method: We mapped origins of both elaiosomes and fleshy fruits onto the phylogenyusing parsimony in the program Mesquite (Maddison and Maddison, 2005). We analysed therelationship between ant relative abundances, the number of origins of seed-dispersing ants, and the rate of origination of elaiosomes using randomization-based Monte Carlo regression in the program R (Cliff and Ord, 1981). Using the program Discrete (Pagel, 2006), we test whether fleshy fruits or elaiosomes and shaded forest understoreys show correlated evolution.Conclusions: Morphological features for the dispersal of seeds by ants (myrmecochory) have evolved at least twenty times within the monocots. Origins of myrmecochory are not associated with the rise of forests during the Cretaceous or with subsequent transitions of plant lineages into closed canopy habitats, nor are they contemporaneous with the origins of fleshy fruits. Instead, the origins of myrmecochory are closely associated with the rise in relative abundanceof ants (proportion of all individual insects in fossils) towards the end of the Eocene and more recently

    Solar Neutrinos from CNO Electron Capture

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    The neutrino flux from the sun is predicted to have a CNO-cycle contribution as well as the known pp-chain component. Previously, only the fluxes from beta+ decays of 13N, 15O, and 17F have been calculated in detail. Another neutrino component that has not been widely considered is electron capture on these nuclei. We calculate the number of interactions in several solar neutrino detectors due to neutrinos from electron capture on 13N, 15O, and 17F, within the context of the Standard Solar Model. We also discuss possible non-standard models where the CNO flux is increased.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, submitted to Phys. Rev. C; v2 has minor changes including integration over solar volume and addition of missing reference to previous continuum electron capture calculation; v3 has minor changes including addition of references and the correction of a small (about 1%) numerical error in the table

    Brain Differently Changes Its Algorithms in Parallel Processing of Visual Information

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    Feedback from the visual cortex (Vl) to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) in macaque monkey increase contrast gain of LGN neurons for black and white (B&W) and for color (C) stimuli. LGN parvocellular cells responses to B&W gratings are enhanced by feedback multiplicatively and in contrast independent manner. However, in magnocellular neurons corticofugal pathways enhance cells responses in a contrast~dependent non-linear manner. For C stimuli cortical feedback enhances parvocellular neurons responses in a very strong contrast-dependent manner. Based on these results [13] we propose a model which includes excitatory and inhibitory effects on cells activity (shunting equations) in retina and LGN while taking into account the anatomy of cortical feedback connections. The main mechanisms related to different algorithms of the data processing in the visual brain are differences in feedback properties from Vl to parvocellular (PC) and to magnocellular (MC) neurons. Descending pathways from Vl change differently receptive field (RF) structure of PC and MC cells. For B&W stimuli, in PC cells feedback changes gain similarly in the RF center and in the RF surround, leaving PC RF structure invariant. However, feedback influence MC cells in two ways: directly and through LGN interneurons, which together changes gain and sizes of their RF center differently than gain and size of the RF surround. For C stimuli PC cells operate like MC cells for B&W. The first mechanism extracts from the stimulus an important features in a independent way from other stimulus parameters, whereas the second channel changes its tuning properties as a function of other stimulus attributes like contrast and/or spatial extension. The model suggests novel idea about the possible functional role of PC and MC pathways

    The beta-delayed neutron emission in 78Ni region

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    A systematic study of the total β\beta-decay half-lives and β\beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities is performed. The β\beta-strength function is treated within the self-consistent density-functional + continuum-QRPA framework including the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. The experimental total β\beta-decay half-lives for the Ni isotopes with AA\leq76 are described satisfactorily. The half-lives predicted from AA=70 up to AA=86 reveal fairly regular AA-behaviour which results from simultaneous account for the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. For ZZ\approx 28 nuclei, a suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found when the NN=50 neutron closed shell is crossed. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the QβSnQ_{\beta} - S_n-window in the daughter nuclei. PACS numbers: 23.40.Bw,21.60.Jz,25.30.Pt,26.30.+kComment: LaTeX, 13 pages, 5 figure

    Ingham County Economic Development Policy Assessment and Organization Implementation

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    This report provides an independent assessment of Ingham County\u27s current economic development policy and offers recommendations on how to make the county\u27s role in economic development more effective
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