8,214 research outputs found

    SPT Clusters with DES and HST Weak Lensing. II. Cosmological Constraints from the Abundance of Massive Halos

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    International audienceWe present cosmological constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters selected via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with a simultaneous mass calibration using weak gravitational lensing data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The cluster sample is constructed from the combined SPT-SZ, SPTpol ECS, and SPTpol 500d surveys, and comprises 1,005 confirmed clusters in the redshift range 0.25−1.780.25-1.78 over a total sky area of 5,200 deg2^2. We use DES Year 3 weak-lensing data for 688 clusters with redshifts z<0.95z<0.95 and HST weak-lensing data for 39 clusters with 0.6<z<1.70.6<z<1.7. The weak-lensing measurements enable robust mass measurements of sample clusters and allow us to empirically constrain the SZ observable--mass relation. For a flat Λ\LambdaCDM cosmology, and marginalizing over the sum of massive neutrinos, we measure Ωm=0.286±0.032\Omega_\mathrm{m}=0.286\pm0.032, σ8=0.817±0.026\sigma_8=0.817\pm0.026, and the parameter combination σ8 (Ωm/0.3)0.25=0.805±0.016\sigma_8\,(\Omega_\mathrm{m}/0.3)^{0.25}=0.805\pm0.016. Our measurement of S8≡σ8 Ωm/0.3=0.795±0.029S_8\equiv\sigma_8\,\sqrt{\Omega_\mathrm{m}/0.3}=0.795\pm0.029 and the constraint from Planck CMB anisotropies (2018 TT,TE,EE+lowE) differ by 1.1σ1.1\sigma. In combination with that Planck dataset, we place a 95% upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses ∑mν<0.18\sum m_\nu<0.18 eV. When additionally allowing the dark energy equation of state parameter ww to vary, we obtain w=−1.45±0.31w=-1.45\pm0.31 from our cluster-based analysis. In combination with Planck data, we measure w=−1.34−0.15+0.22w=-1.34^{+0.22}_{-0.15}, or a 2.2σ2.2\sigma difference with a cosmological constant. We use the cluster abundance to measure σ8\sigma_8 in five redshift bins between 0.25 and 1.8, and we find the results to be consistent with structure growth as predicted by the Λ\LambdaCDM model fit to Planck primary CMB data

    Local Industrialization Based Lucrative Farming Using Machine Learning Technique

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    In recent times, agriculture have gained lot of attention of researchers. More precisely, crop prediction is trending topic for research as it leads agri-business to success or failure. Crop prediction totally rest on climatic and chemical changes. In the past which crop to promote was elected by rancher. All the decisions related to its cultivation, fertilizing, harvesting and farm maintenance was taken by rancher himself with his experience. But as we can see because of constant fluctuations in atmospheric conditions coming to any conclusion have become very tough. Picking correct crop to grow at right times under right circumstances can help rancher to make more business. To achieve what we cannot do manually we have started building machine learning models for it nowadays. To predict the crop deciding which parameters to consider and whose impact will be more on final decision is also equally important. For this we use feature selection models. This will alter the underdone data into more precise one. Though there have been various techniques to resolve this problem better performance is still desirable. In this research we have provided more precise &amp; optimum solution for crop prediction keeping Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur region of Maharashtra. Along with crop &amp; composts to increase harvest we are offering industrialization around so rancher can trade the yield &amp; earn more profit. The proposed solution is using machine learning algorithms like KNN, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes where Random Forest outperforms others so we are using it to build our final framework to predict crop

    An NmrA-like enzyme-catalysed redox-mediated Diels–Alder cycloaddition with anti-selectivity

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    The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the most powerful approaches in organic synthesis and is often used in the synthesis of important pharmaceuticals. Yet, strictly controlling the stereoselectivity of the Diels-Alder reactions is challenging, and great efforts are needed to construct complex molecules with desired chirality via organocatalysis or transition-metal strategies. Nature has evolved different types of enzymes to exquisitely control cyclization stereochemistry; however, most of the reported Diels-Alderases have been shown to only facilitate the energetically favourable diastereoselective cycloadditions. Here we report the discovery and characterization of CtdP, a member of a new class of bifunctional oxidoreductase/Diels-Alderase, which was previously annotated as an NmrA-like transcriptional regulator. We demonstrate that CtdP catalyses the inherently disfavoured cycloaddition to form the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane scaffold with a strict α-anti-selectivity. Guided by computational studies, we reveal a NADP+/NADPH-dependent redox mechanism for the CtdP-catalysed inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition, which serves as the first example of a bifunctional Diels-Alderase that utilizes this mechanism

    Artificial neural network prediction and grey relational grade optimisation of friction stir processing

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    AbstractThe study predicts friction stir process (FSP) parameters using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. A design of experiment (DoE) approach is used to conduct experiments on FSP and to evaluate the best operating parameters of FSP. ANN uses 30 neurons, 1 hidden layer, and an input and output layer in the Matlab® environment. ANN predicts the output parameters with R values of 0.999, 0.995, and 0.992 for training, validation, and test datasets, respectively, while the overall R-value is 0.997. GRA is used to optimize and rank the parameters of the processes and revealed that the rotational tool speed should be 1180 rpm, traverse feed rate 38 mm/min, and tool tilt angle 1° for best results. The optimized values obtained are 380 MPa, 3.8 µm, 138 HV, and 14% for tensile strength, grain size, microhardness, and elongation, respectively. According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and grey relational analysis, the order of influencing parameters on output factors was rotational speed (80%), followed by transverse feed (19%) and tool tilt angle (1%). An ANN is further used to predict using the two most significant parameters—rotational speed and traverse feed. The modified ANN has nearly the same R values as the original ANN. Thus modified ANN may be used for prediction

    Simultaneous Millimeter-wave, Gamma-Ray, and Optical Monitoring of the Blazar PKS 2326-502 during a Flaring State

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    Including millimeter-wave data in multiwavelength studies of the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) can provide insights into AGN physics that are not easily accessible at other wavelengths. We demonstrate in this work the potential of cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes to provide long-term, high-cadence millimeter-wave AGN monitoring over large fractions of sky. We report on a pilot study using data from the SPTpol instrument on the South Pole Telescope (SPT), which was designed to observe the CMB at arcminute and larger angular scales. Between 2013 and 2016, SPTpol was used primarily to observe a single 500 deg ^2 field, covering the entire field several times per day with detectors sensitive to radiation in bands centered at 95 and 150 GHz. We use SPT 150 GHz observations to create AGN light curves, and we compare these millimeter-wave light curves to those at other wavelengths, in particular γ -ray and optical. In this Letter, we focus on a single source, PKS 2326-502, which has extensive, day-timescale monitoring data in gamma-ray, optical, and now millimeter-wave between 2013 and 2016. We find PKS 2326-502 to be in a flaring state in the first 2 yr of this monitoring, and we present a search for evidence of correlated variability between millimeter-wave, optical R- band, and γ -ray observations. This pilot study is paving the way for AGN monitoring with current and upcoming CMB experiments such as SPT-3G, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4, including multiwavelength studies with facilities such as Vera C. Rubin Observatories Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in the 500-square-degree SPTpol Survey

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    International audienceWe present a catalog of 689 galaxy cluster candidates detected at significance ξ>4\xi>4 via their thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature in 95 and 150 GHz data from the 500-square-degree SPTpol survey. We use optical and infrared data from the Dark Energy Camera and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and \spitzer satellites, to confirm 544 of these candidates as clusters with ∼94%\sim94\% purity. The sample has an approximately redshift-independent mass threshold at redshift z>0.25z>0.25 and spans 1.5×101411.5 \times 10^{14} 1. We use external radio data from the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) to estimate contamination to the SZ signal from synchrotron sources. The contamination reduces the recovered ξ\xi by a median value of 0.032, or ∼0.8%\sim0.8\% of the ξ=4\xi=4 threshold value, and ∼7%\sim7\% of candidates have a predicted contamination greater than Δξ=1\Delta \xi = 1. With the exception of a small number of systems (<1%)(<1\%), an analysis of clusters detected in single-frequency 95 and 150 GHz data shows no significant contamination of the SZ signal by emission from dusty or synchrotron sources. This cluster sample will be a key component in upcoming astrophysical and cosmological analyses of clusters. The SPTpol millimeter-wave maps and associated data products used to produce this sample are available at https://pole.uchicago.edu/public/Data/Releases.html, and the NASA LAMBDA website. An interactive sky server with the SPTpol maps and Dark Energy Survey data release 2 images is also available at NCSA https://skyviewer.ncsa.illinois.edu

    Efficacy of two different hydrodynamic sinus lift systems for atraumatic elevation in immediate implant placement

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    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two hydrodynamic sinus lifting procedures and to successfully place immediate implants in maxillary posterior sites that have a compromised native bone as a result of periodontal or endodontic disease. Patients and Methods: A total of 26 patient sites were enrolled with 13 sites each in the Minimally Invasive Antral Membrane Balloon Elevation (MIAMBE) and Drill Integrated Hydrodynamics for the transcrestal sinus floor elevation (DIHSFE) groups who received transcrestal sinus floor elevation followed by immediate implant placement. Clinical parameters such as sinus membrane perforations, nasal bleeding, postoperative sinusitis, VAS scores at Day-7 for pain and discomfort, primary implant stability and time taken were evaluated. Results: The DIHSFE had greater sinus membrane perforations and incidence of nasal bleeding when compared with MIAMBE with (p = 0.066) and (p = 0.141). Post-operative sinusitis was evident in both the groups with (p = 0.619). The mean VAS score was statistically significant between both the groups (p ≤ 0.005). The insertion torque values, and mean time taken for surgical procedure was not statistically significant between groups. Conclusion: The present study highlighted that MIAMBE is superior to DIHSFE in its ability to cause less severe patient morbidities and post-operative complications

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019Research in context

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    Summary: Background: The causes for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are diverse and the incidence trends of IMIDs from specific causes are rarely studied. The study aims to investigate the pattern and trend of IMIDs from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We collected detailed information on six major causes of IMIDs, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, between 1990 and 2019, derived from the Global Burden of Disease study in 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in number of incidents and age standardized incidence rate (ASR) on IMIDs, by sex, age, region, and causes, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends. Findings: In 2019, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease accounted 1.59%, 36.17%, 54.71%, 0.09%, 6.84%, 0.60% of overall new IMIDs cases, respectively. The ASR of IMIDs showed substantial regional and global variation with the highest in High SDI region, High-income North America, and United States of America. Throughout human lifespan, the age distribution of incident cases from six IMIDs was quite different. Globally, incident cases of IMIDs increased with an AAPC of 0.68 and the ASR decreased with an AAPC of −0.34 from 1990 to 2019. The incident cases increased across six IMIDs, the ASR of rheumatoid arthritis increased (0.21, 95% CI 0.18, 0.25), while the ASR of asthma (AAPC = −0.41), inflammatory bowel disease (AAPC = −0.72), multiple sclerosis (AAPC = −0.26), psoriasis (AAPC = −0.77), and atopic dermatitis (AAPC = −0.15) decreased. The ASR of overall and six individual IMID increased with SDI at regional and global level. Countries with higher ASR in 1990 experienced a more rapid decrease in ASR. Interpretation: The incidence patterns of IMIDs varied considerably across the world. Innovative prevention and integrative management strategy are urgently needed to mitigate the increasing ASR of rheumatoid arthritis and upsurging new cases of other five IMIDs, respectively. Funding: The Global Burden of Disease Study is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project funded by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &amp; Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital (2022QN38)


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    Objective: A natural gum from Vateria indica was investigated as a novel matrix forming material for sustained drug delivery using diclofenac potassium as a model drug. Methods: In the current investigation we formulated a matrix tablet using chloroform soluble gum portion of Vateria indica modified gum (VIMG) as a natural matrix forming agent. It was used with a drug-polymer ratio ranging from 1:0.5 to 1:4.5. The pre-compression study of the powder blends was done by calculating bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, and carr’s index, compressibility, and hausner’s ratio. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and prepared tablets were evaluated and were found according to the official guidelines by pharmacopeia. The in-vitro drug release was carried out using USP paddle type II apparatus and the release was found to be sustained. Results: The formulation VIMG-5 containing drug: polymer ratio 1:2.5 showed the 96.26% ±1.73 drug release in 12 hours. The results showed that chloroform soluble fraction of Vateria indica can be used as a drug release modifier to delay the rate of drug release which depended on the amount of gum composition, as the concentration of gum was increased there was sustained the drug release with promising accelerated stability. Conclusion: The evaluation studies on sustained release matrix tablets using Vateria indica chloroform soluble portion of gum as natural material demonstrate the multivariate applications such as matrix forming, binder, and release retardant of the gum in tablet formulation
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