174 research outputs found

    Cosmic String Dynamics and Evolution in Warped Spacetime

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    We study the dynamics and evolution of Nambu-Goto strings in a warped spacetime, where the warp factor is a function of the internal coordinates giving rise to a `throat' region. The microscopic equations of motion for strings in this background include potential and friction terms, which attract the strings towards the bottom of the warping throat. However, by considering the resulting macroscopic equations for the velocities of strings in the vicinity of the throat, we note the absence of enough classical damping to guarantee that the strings actually reach the warped minimum and stabilise there. Instead, our classical analysis supports a picture in which the strings experience mere deflections and bounces around the tip, rather than strongly damped oscillations. Indeed, 4D Hubble friction is inefficient in the internal dimensions and there is no other classical mechanism known, which could provide efficient damping. These results have potentially important implications for the intercommuting probabilities of cosmic superstrings.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figures; Discussion section expanded, physical implications further explored; To appear in PR

    Cosmic String Evolution in Higher Dimensions

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    We obtain the equations of motion for cosmic strings in extensions of the 3+1 FRW model with extra dimensions. From these we derive a generalisation of the Velocity-dependent One-Scale (VOS) model for cosmic string network evolution which we apply, first, to a higher-dimensional isotropic D+1D+1 FRW model and, second, to a 3+1 FRW model with static flat extra dimensions. In the former case the string network does not achieve a scaling regime because of the diminishing rate of string intersections (D>3D>3), but this can be avoided in the latter case by considering compact, small extra dimensions, for which there is a reduced but still appreciable string intercommuting probability. We note that the velocity components lying in the three expanding dimensions are Hubble-damped, whereas those in the static extra dimensions are only very weakly damped. This leads to the pathological possibility, in principle, that string motion in the three infinite dimensions can come to a halt preventing the strings from intersecting, with the result that scaling is not achieved and the strings irreversibly dominate the early universe. We note criteria by which this can be avoided, notably if the spatial structure of the network becomes essentially three-dimensional, as is expected for string networks produced in brane inflation. Applying our model to a brane inflation setting, we find scaling solutions in which the effective 3D string motion does not necessarily stop, but it is slowed down because of the excitations trapped in the extra dimensions. These effects are likely to influence cosmic string network evolution for a long period after formation and we discuss their more general implications.Comment: 23 pages, 8 figures. Minor updates and notational clarification

    Powering AGNs with super-critical black holes

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    We propose a novel mechanism for powering the central engines of Active Galactic Nuclei through super-critical (type II) black hole collapse. In this picture, ~103M⊙10^3 M_\odot of material collapsing at relativistic speeds can trigger a gravitational shock, which can eject a large percentage of the collapsing matter at relativistic speeds, leaving behind a "light" black hole. In the presence of a poloidal magnetic field, the plasma collimates along two jets, and the associated electron synchrotron radiation can easily account for the observed radio luminosities, sizes and durations of AGN jets. For Lorentz factors of order 100 and magnetic fields of a few hundred μG\mu G, synchrotron electrons can shine for 10610^6 yrs, producing jets of sizes of order 100 kpc. This mechanism may also be relevant for Gamma Ray Bursts and, in the absence of magnetic field, supernova explosions.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur
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