29,425 research outputs found

    Properties of an immobilized lipase of Bacillus coagulans BTS-1

    No full text
    Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) is a tri-acylglycerol ester hydrolase, catalysing the hydrolysis of tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols to glycerol and fatty acids. To study the effect of adsorption of a lipase obtained from Bacillus coagulans BTS-1, its lipase was immobilized on native and activated (alkylated) matrices, i.e. silica and celite. The effect of pH, temperature, detergents, substrates, alcohols, organic solvent etc. on the stability of the immobilized enzyme was evaluated. The gluteraldahyde or formaldehyde (at 1% and 2% concentration, v/v) activated matrix was exposed to the Tris buffered lipase. The enzyme was adsorbed/entrapped more rapidly on to the activated silica than on the activated celite. The immobilized lipase showed optimal activity at 50ÂșC following one-hour incubation. The lipase was specifically more hydrolytic to the medium C-length ester (p-nitro phenyl caprylate than p-nitro phenyl laurate). The immobilization/entrapment enhanced the stability of the lipase at a relatively higher temperature (50ÂșC) and also promoted enzyme activity at an acidic pH (pH 5.5). Moreover, the immobilized lipase was quite resistant to the denaturing effect of SDS

    Aerosol source apportionment uncertainty linked to the choice of input chemical components

    No full text
    International audienceFor a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) aerosol source apportionment (SA) studies there is no standard procedure to select the most appropriate chemical components to be included in the input dataset for a given site typology, nor specific recommendations in this direction. However, these choices are crucial for the final SA outputs not only in terms of number of sources identified but also, and consequently, in the source contributions estimates. In fact, PMF tends to reproduce most of PM mass measured independently and introduced as a total variable in the input data, regardless of the percentage of PM mass which has been chemically characterized, so that the lack of some specific source tracers (e.g. levoglucosan) can potentially affect the results of the whole source apportionment study. The present study elaborates further on the same concept, evaluating quantitatively the impact of lacking specific sources’ tracers on the whole source apportionment, both in terms of identified sources and source contributions. This work aims to provide first recommendations on the most suitable and critical components to be included in PMF analyses in order to reduce PMF output uncertainty as much as possible, and better represent the most commons PM sources observed in many sites in Western countries. To this aim, we performed three sensitivity analyses on three different datasets across EU, including extended sets of organic tracers, in order to cover different types of urban conditions (Mediterranean, Continental, and Alpine), source types, and PM fractions. Our findings reveal that the vehicle exhaust source resulted to be less sensitive to the choice of analytes, although source contributions estimates can deviate significantly up to 44 %. On the other hand, for the detection of the non-exhaust one is clearly necessary to analyze specific inorganic elements. The choice of not analysing non-polar organics likely causes the loss of separation of exhaust and non-exhaust factors, thus obtaining a unique road traffic source, which provokes a significant bias of total contribution. Levoglucosan was, in most cases, crucial to identify biomass burning contributions in Milan and in Barcelona, in spite of the presence of PAHs in Barcelona, while for the case of Grenoble, even discarding levoglucosan, the presence of PAHs allowed identifying the BB factor. Modifying the rest of analytes provoke a systematic underestimation of biomass burning source contributions. SIA factors resulted to be generally overestimated with respect to the base case analysis, also in the case that ions were not included in the PMF analysis. Trace elements were crucial to identify shipping emissions (V and Ni) and industrial sources (Pb, Ni, Br, Zn, Mn, Cd and As). When changing the rest of input variables, the uncertainty was narrow for shipping but large for industrial processes. Major and trace elements were also crucial to identify the mineral/soil factor at all cities. Biogenic SOA and Anthropogenic SOA factors were sensitive to the presence of their molecular tracers, since the availability of OC alone is unable to separate a SOA factor. Arabitol and sorbitol were crucial to detecting fungal spores while odd number of higher alkanes (C27 to C31) for plant debris

    TRIDENT – Technology based impact assessment tool foR sustaInable, transparent Deep sEa miNing exploraTion and exploitation: A project overview

    No full text
    By creating a dependable, transparent, and costeffective system for forecasting and ongoing environmental impact monitoring of exploration and exploitation activities in the deep sea, TRIDENT seeks to contribute to the sustainable exploitation of seabed mineral resources. In order to operate autonomously in remote locations under harsh conditions and send real-time data to authorities in charge of granting licenses and providing oversight, this system will create and integrate new technology and innovative solutions. The efficient monitoring and inspection system that will be created will abide by national and international legal frameworks. At the sea surface, mid-water, and the bottom, TRIDENT will identify all pertinent physical, chemical, geological, and biological characteristics that must be monitored. It will also look for data gaps and suggest procedures for addressing them. These are crucial actions to take in order to produce accurate indicators of excellent environmental status, statistically robust environmental baselines, and thresholds for significant impact, allowing for the standardization of methods and tools. In order to monitor environmental parameters on mining and reference areas at representative spatial and temporal scales, the project consortium will thereafter develop and test an integrated system of stationary and mobile observatory platforms outfitted with the most recent automatic sensors and samplers. The system will incorporate high-capacity data processing pipelines able to gather, transmit, process, and display monitoring data in close to real-time to facilitate prompt actions for preventing major harm to the environment. Last but not least, it will offer systemic and technological solutions for predicting probable impacts of applying the developed monitoring and mitigation techniques.</p

    Isoniazid and rifampicin exposure during treatment in drug-susceptible TB

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: Observational real-world studies on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in relation to pharmacokinetic (PK) target values are lacking. This study aims to describe the PK of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in a real-world setting of patients with drug-susceptible TB in relation to frequently used threshold values.METHODS: A total of 116 patients with TB using standard doses of RIF and INH and who had TDM as part of clinical care were included. Maximum plasma concentration (C max) and 24 h area under the concentration time curve (AUC 24) at standard and revised doses were described in relation to the threshold values (C max ≄8 mg/L for RIF and ≄3 mg/L for INH).RESULTS: For RIF (100 patients), median C max and median AUC 24 were respectively 7.9 mg/L (IQR 6.0-11.0) and 35.8 mg*h/L (IQR 27.4-57.3) at the first TDM measurement after a standard dose of 600 mg. For INH (90 patients), median C max and median AUC 24 were respectively 2.9 mg/L (IQR 1.3-2.5) and 12.5 mg*h/L (IQR 8.7-18.9) at the first TDM after a standard dose 300 mg. Overall, more than 50% of study participants had drug exposure below threshold values at the first TDM.CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the measured C max values for both RIF and INH were frequently below the pre-specified targets, emphasising the need for better justification of drug exposure targets. These TDM results highlight the need for validating PK targets of anti-TB drugs associated with clinically relevant outcomes. </p

    GWTC-2.1: Deep extended catalog of compact binary coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo during the first half of the third observing run

    No full text
    International audienceThe second Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, GWTC-2, reported on 39 compact binary coalescences observed by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors between 1 April 2019 15∶00 UTC and 1 October 2019 15∶00 UTC. Here, we present GWTC-2.1, which reports on a deeper list of candidate events observed over the same period. We analyze the final version of the strain data over this period with improved calibration and better subtraction of excess noise, which has been publicly released. We employ three matched-filter search pipelines for candidate identification, and estimate the probability of astrophysical origin for each candidate event. While GWTC-2 used a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per year, we include in GWTC-2.1, 1201 candidates that pass a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per day. We calculate the source properties of a subset of 44 high-significance candidates that have a probability of astrophysical origin greater than 0.5. Of these candidates, 36 have been reported in GWTC-2. We also calculate updated source properties for all binary black hole events previously reported in GWTC-1. If the eight additional high-significance candidates presented here are astrophysical, the mass range of events that are unambiguously identified as binary black holes (both objects ≄3M⊙) is increased compared to GWTC-2, with total masses from ∌14M⊙ for GW190924_021846 to ∌182M⊙ for GW190426_190642. Source properties calculated using our default prior suggest that the primary components of two new candidate events (GW190403_051519 and GW190426_190642) fall in the mass gap predicted by pair-instability supernova theory. We also expand the population of binaries with significantly asymmetric mass ratios reported in GWTC-2 by an additional two events (the mass ratio is less than 0.65 and 0.44 at 90% probability for GW190403_051519 and GW190917_114630 respectively), and find that two of the eight new events have effective inspiral spins χeff&gt;0 (at 90% credibility), while no binary is consistent with χeff&lt;0 at the same significance. We provide updated estimates for rates of binary black hole and binary neutron star coalescence in the local Universe

    The definition of treatment resistance in anxiety disorders: a Delphi method-based consensus guideline

    No full text
    © 2024 World Psychiatric Association. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.21177Anxiety disorders are very prevalent and often persistent mental disorders, with a considerable rate of treatment resistance which requires regulatory clinical trials of innovative therapeutic interventions. However, an explicit definition of treatment-resistant anxiety disorders (TR-AD) informing such trials is currently lacking. We used a Delphi method-based consensus approach to provide internationally agreed, consistent and clinically useful operational criteria for TR-AD in adults. Following a summary of the current state of knowledge based on international guidelines and an available systematic review, a survey of free-text responses to a 29-item questionnaire on relevant aspects of TR-AD, and an online consensus meeting, a panel of 36 multidisciplinary international experts and stakeholders voted anonymously on written statements in three survey rounds. Consensus was defined as ≄75% of the panel agreeing with a statement. The panel agreed on a set of 14 recommendations for the definition of TR-AD, providing detailed operational criteria for resistance to pharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, as well as a potential staging model. The panel also evaluated further aspects regarding epidemiological subgroups, comorbidities and biographical factors, the terminology of TR-AD vs. “difficult-to-treat” anxiety disorders, preferences and attitudes of persons with these disorders, and future research directions. This Delphi method-based consensus on operational criteria for TR-AD is expected to serve as a systematic, consistent and practical clinical guideline to aid in designing future mechanistic studies and facilitate clinical trials for regulatory purposes. This effort could ultimately lead to the development of more effective evidence-based stepped-care treatment algorithms for patients with anxiety disorders.Peer reviewe

    GWTC-2.1: Deep extended catalog of compact binary coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo during the first half of the third observing run

    No full text
    International audienceThe second Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, GWTC-2, reported on 39 compact binary coalescences observed by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors between 1 April 2019 15∶00 UTC and 1 October 2019 15∶00 UTC. Here, we present GWTC-2.1, which reports on a deeper list of candidate events observed over the same period. We analyze the final version of the strain data over this period with improved calibration and better subtraction of excess noise, which has been publicly released. We employ three matched-filter search pipelines for candidate identification, and estimate the probability of astrophysical origin for each candidate event. While GWTC-2 used a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per year, we include in GWTC-2.1, 1201 candidates that pass a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per day. We calculate the source properties of a subset of 44 high-significance candidates that have a probability of astrophysical origin greater than 0.5. Of these candidates, 36 have been reported in GWTC-2. We also calculate updated source properties for all binary black hole events previously reported in GWTC-1. If the eight additional high-significance candidates presented here are astrophysical, the mass range of events that are unambiguously identified as binary black holes (both objects ≄3M⊙) is increased compared to GWTC-2, with total masses from ∌14M⊙ for GW190924_021846 to ∌182M⊙ for GW190426_190642. Source properties calculated using our default prior suggest that the primary components of two new candidate events (GW190403_051519 and GW190426_190642) fall in the mass gap predicted by pair-instability supernova theory. We also expand the population of binaries with significantly asymmetric mass ratios reported in GWTC-2 by an additional two events (the mass ratio is less than 0.65 and 0.44 at 90% probability for GW190403_051519 and GW190917_114630 respectively), and find that two of the eight new events have effective inspiral spins χeff&gt;0 (at 90% credibility), while no binary is consistent with χeff&lt;0 at the same significance. We provide updated estimates for rates of binary black hole and binary neutron star coalescence in the local Universe

    Overcoming barriers to climate-smart agriculture in South Asia

    No full text
    Despite the promise of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to improve food security in South Asia, most CSA practices and technologies have not been widely adopted. We identify the key barriers to CSA adoption in South Asia and suggest strategies to overcome them to increase CSA adoption at scale

    Search for Eccentric Black Hole Coalescences during the Third Observing Run of LIGO and Virgo