517 research outputs found

    ONEST (Observers Needed to Evaluate Subjective Tests) Analysis of Stromal Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (sTILs) in Breast Cancer and Its Limitations

    Get PDF
    Simple Summary Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reflect the host's response against tumours. TILs have a strong prognostic effect in the so-called triple-negative (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative) subset of breast cancers and predict a better response when primary systemic (neoadjuvant) treatment is administered. Although they are easy to assess, their quantitative assessment is subject to some inter-observer variation. ONEST (Observers Needed to Evaluate Subjective Tests) is a new way of analysing inter-observer variability and helps in estimating the number of observers required for a more reliable estimation of this phenomenon. This aspect of reproducibility for TILs has not been explored previously. Our analysis suggests that between six and nine pathologists can give a good approximation of inter-observer agreement in TIL assessments. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reflect antitumour immunity. Their evaluation of histopathology specimens is influenced by several factors and is subject to issues of reproducibility. ONEST (Observers Needed to Evaluate Subjective Tests) helps in determining the number of observers that would be sufficient for the reliable estimation of inter-observer agreement of TIL categorisation. This has not been explored previously in relation to TILs. ONEST analyses, using an open-source software developed by the first author, were performed on TIL quantification in breast cancers taken from two previous studies. These were one reproducibility study involving 49 breast cancers, 23 in the first circulation and 14 pathologists in the second circulation, and one study involving 100 cases and 9 pathologists. In addition to the estimates of the number of observers required, other factors influencing the results of ONEST were examined. The analyses reveal that between six and nine observers (range 2-11) are most commonly needed to give a robust estimate of reproducibility. In addition, the number and experience of observers, the distribution of values around or away from the extremes, and outliers in the classification also influence the results. Due to the simplicity and the potentially relevant information it may give, we propose ONEST to be a part of new reproducibility analyses

    ONEST (Observers Needed to Evaluate Subjective Tests) Analysis of Stromal Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (sTILs) in Breast Cancer and Its Limitations

    No full text
    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reflect antitumour immunity. Their evaluation of histopathology specimens is influenced by several factors and is subject to issues of reproducibility. ONEST (Observers Needed to Evaluate Subjective Tests) helps in determining the number of observers that would be sufficient for the reliable estimation of inter-observer agreement of TIL categorisation. This has not been explored previously in relation to TILs. ONEST analyses, using an open-source software developed by the first author, were performed on TIL quantification in breast cancers taken from two previous studies. These were one reproducibility study involving 49 breast cancers, 23 in the first circulation and 14 pathologists in the second circulation, and one study involving 100 cases and 9 pathologists. In addition to the estimates of the number of observers required, other factors influencing the results of ONEST were examined. The analyses reveal that between six and nine observers (range 2–11) are most commonly needed to give a robust estimate of reproducibility. In addition, the number and experience of observers, the distribution of values around or away from the extremes, and outliers in the classification also influence the results. Due to the simplicity and the potentially relevant information it may give, we propose ONEST to be a part of new reproducibility analyses

    Prognostic Value of Stromal Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Young, Node-Negative, Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Who Did Not Receive (neo)Adjuvant Systemic Therapy

    Full text link
    PURPOSE Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered aggressive, and therefore, virtually all young patients with TNBC receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Increased stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) have been associated with a favorable prognosis in TNBC. However, whether this association holds for patients who are node-negative (N0), young (< 40 years), and chemotherapy-naïve, and thus can be used for chemotherapy de-escalation strategies, is unknown. METHODS We selected all patients with N0 TNBC diagnosed between 1989 and 2000 from a Dutch population-based registry. Patients were age < 40 years at diagnosis and had not received (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy, as was standard practice at the time. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were retrieved (PALGA: Dutch Pathology Registry), and a pathology review including sTILs was performed. Patients were categorized according to sTILs (< 30%, 30%-75%, and ≥ 75%). Multivariable Cox regression was performed for overall survival, with or without sTILs as a covariate. Cumulative incidence of distant metastasis or death was analyzed in a competing risk model, with second primary tumors as competing risk. RESULTS sTILs were scored for 441 patients. High sTILs (≥ 75%; 21%) translated into an excellent prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of only 2.1% (95% CI, 0 to 5.0), whereas low sTILs (< 30%; 52%) had an unfavorable prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of 38.4% (32.1 to 44.6). In addition, every 10% increment of sTILs decreased the risk of death by 19% (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.87), which are an independent predictor adding prognostic information to standard clinicopathologic variables (χ2^{2} = 46.7, P < .001). CONCLUSION Chemotherapy-naïve, young patients with N0 TNBC with high sTILs (≥ 75%) have an excellent long-term prognosis. Therefore, sTILs should be considered for prospective clinical trials investigating (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy de-escalation strategies

    Distal Brachial Artery Perforator flap: a new chimeric option for complex hand and digits defects.

    No full text
    Reconstruction of fingers pose unique challenges, as a thin and flexible flap is needed in order to guarantee a good functional outcome. For the first time, in this report, we present the DBAp (distal brachial artery perforator) flap, based on the distal perforator closer to the medial epicondyle. The DBAp flap was used to reconstruct complex digit defects as free flap, and to cover an elbow defect while raised as a propeller. Four patients underwent finger reconstruction (free flaps): two patients presented an unstable finger scar following previous surgery, whereas the other two patients presented a terminalized finger at the level of the middle phalanx. A further patient presented a post-traumatic loss of substance at the elbow and was reconstructed using a perforator propeller DBAP flap. Loss of tissues included skin and subcutaneous tissue in all patients and in one patient it included a bone component. Flap dimensions ranged from 48 to 18 cm &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; (average: 32 cm &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; ). Among complications, patient n.2 flap presented a marginal flap necrosis requiring a small skin graft after necrosis debridement. The DBAp flap provides a slim, glabrous and pliable skin tissue with a well-hidden donor site scar and thanks to the anatomic location of the distal perforator can be designed to include a vascularized bone graft from the medial epicondyle. Despite the low number of cases, we believe that this flap should be considered as a dependable and effective source for complex reconstructions of both soft tissue and bone in fingers

    Prognostic Value of Stromal Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Young, Node-Negative, Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Who Did Not Receive (neo)Adjuvant Systemic Therapy

    Get PDF
    PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered aggressive, and therefore, virtually all young patients with TNBC receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Increased stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) have been associated with a favorable prognosis in TNBC. However, whether this association holds for patients who are node-negative (N0), young (< 40 years), and chemotherapy-naïve, and thus can be used for chemotherapy de-escalation strategies, is unknown. METHODS: We selected all patients with N0 TNBC diagnosed between 1989 and 2000 from a Dutch population-based registry. Patients were age < 40 years at diagnosis and had not received (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy, as was standard practice at the time. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were retrieved (PALGA: Dutch Pathology Registry), and a pathology review including sTILs was performed. Patients were categorized according to sTILs (< 30%, 30%-75%, and ≥ 75%). Multivariable Cox regression was performed for overall survival, with or without sTILs as a covariate. Cumulative incidence of distant metastasis or death was analyzed in a competing risk model, with second primary tumors as competing risk. RESULTS: sTILs were scored for 441 patients. High sTILs (≥ 75%; 21%) translated into an excellent prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of only 2.1% (95% CI, 0 to 5.0), whereas low sTILs (< 30%; 52%) had an unfavorable prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of 38.4% (32.1 to 44.6). In addition, every 10% increment of sTILs decreased the risk of death by 19% (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.87), which are an independent predictor adding prognostic information to standard clinicopathologic variables (χ2 = 46.7, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-naïve, young patients with N0 TNBC with high sTILs (≥ 75%) have an excellent long-term prognosis. Therefore, sTILs should be considered for prospective clinical trials investigating (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy de-escalation strategies

    Partial trapeziectomy and pyrocarbon interpositional implant (Pyrodisk) for trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis in the active working population: outcomes of a 10 years-experience.

    No full text
    The treatment of trapeziometacarpal (TM) osteoarthritis is still debated, as many surgical options are available, and no technique has proven to be superior. Prosthetic treatment in this context has been described since the early 60s. Recently, the use of pyrolytic carbon-based prosthesis has revolutionized arthroplasty surgery in the hand. We performed a retrospective investigation of our surgical management of TM osteoarthritis since 2010 including the study only patients treated with partial trapeziectomy and Pyrodisk implant, with at least 5 years follow-up. After the application of inclusion criteria, 26 patients (6 males and 20 females) were retained. Despite the literature suggesting that implant TM surgery is well suited for older patients, in our experience, the procedure was mainly proposed to the young manual worker, with high demands in terms of thumb strength and stability (mean age of 53 years old, range 37-65). A statistically significant improvement in post-operative DASH, Kapandji and scores was observed. As well, strength measurements, particularly pinch strength and grip strength, increased significantly after the surgery. According to our findings, the Pyrodisk implant provides satisfactory results in terms of thumb strength and stability even in young and active patients and should therefore be considered as a valuable option in selected cases. Meticulous surgical procedure is mandatory in order to avoid complications and should therefore be executed by an expert surgeon. Abbreviation: IV: level of evidence

    One-Stage Coverage of Leg Region Defects with STSG Combined with VAC Dressing Improves Early Patient Mobilisation and Graft Take: A Comparative Study.

    No full text
    Lower limb skin defects are very common and can result from a wide range of aetiologies. Split thickness skin graft (STSG) is a widely used method to address these problems. The role of postoperative dressing is primary as it permits one to apply a uniform pressure over the grafted area and promote adherence. Focusing on lower limb reconstruction, our clinical study compares the application of V.A.C. (Vacuum Assisted Closure) Therapy vs. conventional dressing in the immediate postoperative period following skin grafting. We included in the study all patients who received skin grafts on the leg region between January 2015 and December 2018, despite the aetiology of the defect. Only reconstructions with complete preoperative and postoperative follow-up data were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups depending on if they received a traditional compressive dressing or a VAC dressing in the immediate postoperative period. We could retain 92 patients, 23 in the No VAC group and 69 in the VAC group. The patients included in the VAC group showed a statistically significant higher rate of graft take together with a lower immobilisation time (p &amp;lt; 0.05). Moreover, a lower rate of postoperative infection was recorded in the VAC group. This study represents the largest in the literature to report in detail surgical outcomes comparing the use of VAC therapy vs. conventional dressing after STSG in the postoperative management of lower limb reconstruction using skin grafts. VAC therapy was used to secure the grafts in the leg region, increasing the early graft take rate while at the same time improving patient mobilisation
    corecore