148 research outputs found

    Stress-Induced Premature Senescence Related to Oxidative Stress in the Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

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    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to cardiometabolic risk factors, such as visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, arterial hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are particularly at risk of developing metabolic/hepatic disorders later in life. Oxidative stress and cellular senescence have been associated with MetS and are observed in infants born following IUGR. However, whether these mechanisms could be particularly associated with the development of NAFLD in these individuals is still unknown. IUGR was induced in rats by a maternal low-protein diet during gestation versus. a control (CTRL) diet. In six-month-old offspring, we observed an increased visceral fat mass, glucose intolerance, and hepatic alterations (increased transaminase levels, triglyceride and neutral lipid deposit) in male rats with induced IUGR compared with the CTRL males; no differences were found in females. In IUGR male livers, we identified some markers of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) (lipofuscin deposit, increased protein expression of p21 <sup>WAF</sup> , p16 <sup>INK4a</sup> and Acp53, but decreased pRb/Rb ratio, foxo-1 and sirtuin-1 protein and mRNA expression) associated with oxidative stress (higher superoxide anion levels, DNA damages, decreased Cu/Zn SOD, increased catalase protein expression, increased nfe2 and decreased keap1 mRNA expression). Impaired lipogenesis pathways (decreased pAMPK/AMPK ratio, increased pAKT/AKT ratio, SREBP1 and PPARγ protein expression) were also observed in IUGR male livers. At birth, no differences were observed in liver histology, markers of SIPS and oxidative stress between CTRL and IUGR males. These data demonstrate that the livers of IUGR males at adulthood display SIPS and impaired liver structure and function related to oxidative stress and allow the identification of specific therapeutic strategies to limit or prevent adverse consequences of IUGR, particularly metabolic and hepatic disorders

    Homotopy bases and finite derivation type for Schutzenberger groups of monoids

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    Given a finitely presented monoid and a homotopy base for the monoid, and given an arbitrary Schutzenberger group of the monoid, the main result of this paper gives a homotopy base, and presentation, for the Schutzenberger group. In the case that the R-class R' of the Schutzenberger group G(H) has only finitely many H-classes, and there is an element s of the multiplicative right pointwise stabilizer of H, such that under the left action of the monoid on its R-classes the intersection of the orbit of the R-class of s with the inverse orbit of R' is finite, then finiteness of the presentation and of the homotopy base is preserved.Comment: 24 page

    Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: III. Nuclear Physics Input

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    The nuclear physics input used to compute the Monte Carlo reaction rates and probability density functions that are tabulated in the second paper of this series (Paper II) is presented. Specifically, we publish the input files to the Monte Carlo reaction rate code RatesMC, which is based on the formalism presented in the first paper of this series (Paper I). This data base contains overwhelmingly experimental nuclear physics information. The survey of literature for this review was concluded in November 2009.Comment: 132 page

    Early intervention with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 modulates the host-microbe interface independent of the sustained changes induced by the neonatal environment

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    Inflammatory and metabolic diseases can originate during early-life and have been correlated with shifts in intestinal microbial ecology. Here we demonstrate that minor environmental fluctuations during the early neonatal period had sustained effects on the developing porcine microbiota and host-microbe interface. These inter-replicate effects appear to originate during the first day of life, and are likely to reflect very early microbiota acquisition from the environment. We statistically link early systemic inflammation with later local increases in inflammatory cytokine (IL-17) production, which could have important enteric health implications. Immunity, intestinal barrier function, host metabolism and host-microbiota co-metabolism were further modified by Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 supplementation, although composition of the in situ microbiota remained unchanged. Finally, our robust model identified novel, strong correlations between urinary metabolites (eg malonate, phenylacetylglycine, alanine) and mucosal immunoglobulin (IgM) and cytokine (IL-10, IL-4) production, thus providing the possibility of the development of urinary ‘dipstick’ tests to assess non-accessible mucosal immune development and identify early precursors (biomarkers) of disease. These results have important implications for infants exposed to neonatal factors including caesarean delivery, antibiotic therapy and delayed discharge from hospital environments, which may predispose to the development of inflammatory and metabolic diseases in later life

    Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite loci in 78 individuals from four Jewish groups together with similar data on 321 individuals from 12 non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We find that the Jewish populations show a high level of genetic similarity to each other, clustering together in several types of analysis of population structure. Further, Bayesian clustering, neighbor-joining trees, and multidimensional scaling place the Jewish populations as intermediate between the non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These results support the view that the Jewish populations largely share a common Middle Eastern ancestry and that over their history they have undergone varying degrees of admixture with non-Jewish populations of European descent.</p

    Secretor Genotype (FUT2 gene) Is Strongly Associated with the Composition of Bifidobacteria in the Human Intestine

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    Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health, and its composition is determined by several factors, such as diet and host genotype. However, thus far it has remained unknown which host genes are determinants for the microbiota composition. We studied the diversity and abundance of dominant bacteria and bifidobacteria from the faecal samples of 71 healthy individuals. In this cohort, 14 were non-secretor individuals and the remainders were secretors. The secretor status is defined by the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucus and other secretions. It is determined by fucosyltransferase 2 enzyme, encoded by the FUT2 gene. Non-functional enzyme resulting from a nonsense mutation in the FUT2 gene leads to the non-secretor phenotype. PCR-DGGE and qPCR methods were applied for the intestinal microbiota analysis. Principal component analysis of bifidobacterial DGGE profiles showed that the samples of non-secretor individuals formed a separate cluster within the secretor samples. Moreover, bifidobacterial diversity (p<0.0001), richness (p<0.0003), and abundance (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the samples from the non-secretor individuals as compared with those from the secretor individuals. The non-secretor individuals lacked, or were rarely colonized by, several genotypes related to B. bifidum, B. adolescentis and B. catenulatum/pseudocatenulatum. In contrast to bifidobacteria, several bacterial genotypes were more common and the richness (p<0.04) of dominant bacteria as detected by PCR-DGGE was higher in the non-secretor individuals than in the secretor individuals. We showed that the diversity and composition of the human bifidobacterial population is strongly associated with the histo-blood group ABH secretor/non-secretor status, which consequently appears to be one of the host genetic determinants for the composition of the intestinal microbiota. This association can be explained by the difference between the secretor and non-secretor individuals in their expression of ABH and Lewis glycan epitopes in the mucosa

    Antibiotic resistance determinants in the interplay between food and gut microbiota

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    A complex and heterogeneous microflora performs sugar and lactic acid fermentations in food products. Depending on the fermentable food matrix (dairy, meat, vegetable etc.) as well as on the species composition of the microbiota, specific combinations of molecules are produced that confer unique flavor, texture, and taste to each product. Bacterial populations within such “fermented food microbiota” are often of environmental origin, they persist alive in foods ready for consumption, eventually reaching the gastro-intestinal tract where they can interact with the resident gut microbiota of the host. Although this interaction is mostly of transient nature, it can greatly contribute to human health, as several species within the food microbiota also display probiotic properties. Such an interplay between food and gut microbiota underlines the importance of the microbiological quality of fermented foods, as the crowded environment of the gut is also an ideal site for genetic exchanges among bacteria. Selection and spreading of antibiotic resistance genes in foodborne bacteria has gained increasing interest in the past decade, especially in light of the potential transferability of antibiotic resistance determinants to opportunistic pathogens, natural inhabitants of the human gut but capable of acquiring virulence in immunocompromised individuals. This review aims at describing major findings and future prospects in the field, especially after the use of antibiotics as growth promoters was totally banned in Europe, with special emphasis on the application of genomic technologies to improve quality and safety of fermented foods

    Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

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