76 research outputs found

    On the Feasibility of Maintenance Algorithms in Dynamic Graphs

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    Near ubiquitous mobile computing has led to intense interest in dynamic graph theory. This provides a new and challenging setting for algorithmics and complexity theory. For any graph-based problem, the rapid evolution of a (possibly disconnected) graph over time naturally leads to the important complexity question: is it better to calculate a new solution from scratch or to adapt the known solution on the prior graph to quickly provide a solution of guaranteed quality for the changed graph? In this paper, we demonstrate that the former is the best approach in some cases, but that there are cases where the latter is feasible. We prove that, under certain conditions, hard problems cannot even be approximated in any reasonable complexity bound --- i.e., even with a large amount of time, having a solution to a very similar graph does not help in computing a solution to the current graph. To achieve this, we formalize the idea as a maintenance algorithm. Using r-Regular Subgraph as the primary example we show that W[1]-hardness for the parameterized approximation problem implies the non-existence of a maintenance algorithm for the given approximation ratio. Conversely we show that Vertex Cover, which is fixed-parameter tractable, has a 2-approximate maintenance algorithm. The implications of NP-hardness and NPO-hardness are also explored

    On the Treewidth of Dynamic Graphs

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    Dynamic graph theory is a novel, growing area that deals with graphs that change over time and is of great utility in modelling modern wireless, mobile and dynamic environments. As a graph evolves, possibly arbitrarily, it is challenging to identify the graph properties that can be preserved over time and understand their respective computability. In this paper we are concerned with the treewidth of dynamic graphs. We focus on metatheorems, which allow the generation of a series of results based on general properties of classes of structures. In graph theory two major metatheorems on treewidth provide complexity classifications by employing structural graph measures and finite model theory. Courcelle's Theorem gives a general tractability result for problems expressible in monadic second order logic on graphs of bounded treewidth, and Frick & Grohe demonstrate a similar result for first order logic and graphs of bounded local treewidth. We extend these theorems by showing that dynamic graphs of bounded (local) treewidth where the length of time over which the graph evolves and is observed is finite and bounded can be modelled in such a way that the (local) treewidth of the underlying graph is maintained. We show the application of these results to problems in dynamic graph theory and dynamic extensions to static problems. In addition we demonstrate that certain widely used dynamic graph classes naturally have bounded local treewidth

    Time-Varying Graphs and Dynamic Networks

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    The past few years have seen intensive research efforts carried out in some apparently unrelated areas of dynamic systems -- delay-tolerant networks, opportunistic-mobility networks, social networks -- obtaining closely related insights. Indeed, the concepts discovered in these investigations can be viewed as parts of the same conceptual universe; and the formal models proposed so far to express some specific concepts are components of a larger formal description of this universe. The main contribution of this paper is to integrate the vast collection of concepts, formalisms, and results found in the literature into a unified framework, which we call TVG (for time-varying graphs). Using this framework, it is possible to express directly in the same formalism not only the concepts common to all those different areas, but also those specific to each. Based on this definitional work, employing both existing results and original observations, we present a hierarchical classification of TVGs; each class corresponds to a significant property examined in the distributed computing literature. We then examine how TVGs can be used to study the evolution of network properties, and propose different techniques, depending on whether the indicators for these properties are a-temporal (as in the majority of existing studies) or temporal. Finally, we briefly discuss the introduction of randomness in TVGs.Comment: A short version appeared in ADHOC-NOW'11. This version is to be published in Internation Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed System

    Gathering in Dynamic Rings

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    The gathering problem requires a set of mobile agents, arbitrarily positioned at different nodes of a network to group within finite time at the same location, not fixed in advanced. The extensive existing literature on this problem shares the same fundamental assumption: the topological structure does not change during the rendezvous or the gathering; this is true also for those investigations that consider faulty nodes. In other words, they only consider static graphs. In this paper we start the investigation of gathering in dynamic graphs, that is networks where the topology changes continuously and at unpredictable locations. We study the feasibility of gathering mobile agents, identical and without explicit communication capabilities, in a dynamic ring of anonymous nodes; the class of dynamics we consider is the classic 1-interval-connectivity. We focus on the impact that factors such as chirality (i.e., a common sense of orientation) and cross detection (i.e., the ability to detect, when traversing an edge, whether some agent is traversing it in the other direction), have on the solvability of the problem. We provide a complete characterization of the classes of initial configurations from which the gathering problem is solvable in presence and in absence of cross detection and of chirality. The feasibility results of the characterization are all constructive: we provide distributed algorithms that allow the agents to gather. In particular, the protocols for gathering with cross detection are time optimal. We also show that cross detection is a powerful computational element. We prove that, without chirality, knowledge of the ring size is strictly more powerful than knowledge of the number of agents; on the other hand, with chirality, knowledge of n can be substituted by knowledge of k, yielding the same classes of feasible initial configurations

    Exploring Graphs with Time Constraints by Unreliable Collections of Mobile Robots

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    A graph environment must be explored by a collection of mobile robots. Some of the robots, a priori unknown, may turn out to be unreliable. The graph is weighted and each node is assigned a deadline. The exploration is successful if each node of the graph is visited before its deadline by a reliable robot. The edge weight corresponds to the time needed by a robot to traverse the edge. Given the number of robots which may crash, is it possible to design an algorithm, which will always guarantee the exploration, independently of the choice of the subset of unreliable robots by the adversary? We find the optimal time, during which the graph may be explored. Our approach permits to find the maximal number of robots, which may turn out to be unreliable, and the graph is still guaranteed to be explored. We concentrate on line graphs and rings, for which we give positive results. We start with the case of the collections involving only reliable robots. We give algorithms finding optimal times needed for exploration when the robots are assigned to fixed initial positions as well as when such starting positions may be determined by the algorithm. We extend our consideration to the case when some number of robots may be unreliable. Our most surprising result is that solving the line exploration problem with robots at given positions, which may involve crash-faulty ones, is NP-hard. The same problem has polynomial solutions for a ring and for the case when the initial robots' positions on the line are arbitrary. The exploration problem is shown to be NP-hard for star graphs, even when the team consists of only two reliable robots

    Computational Controversy

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    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have appeared, using new data sources such as Wikipedia, which help us now better understand these phenomena. However, compared to what social sciences have discovered about such debates, the existing computational approaches mostly focus on just a few of the many important aspects around the concept of controversies. In order to link the two strands, we provide and evaluate here a controversy model that is both, rooted in the findings of the social science literature and at the same time strongly linked to computational methods. We show how this model can lead to computational controversy analytics that have full coverage over all the crucial aspects that make up a controversy.Comment: In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo) 201

    Temporal Network Optimization Subject to Connectivity Constraints

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    In this work we consider temporal networks, i.e. networks defined by a labeling λ assigning to each edge of an underlying graph G a set of discrete time-labels. The labels of an edge, which are natural numbers, indicate the discrete time moments at which the edge is available. We focus on path problems of temporal networks. In particular, we consider time-respecting paths, i.e. paths whose edges are assigned by λ a strictly increasing sequence of labels. We begin by giving two efficient algorithms for computing shortest time-respecting paths on a temporal network. We then prove that there is a natural analogue of Menger’s theorem holding for arbitrary temporal networks. Finally, we propose two cost minimization parameters for temporal network design. One is the temporality of G, in which the goal is to minimize the maximum number of labels of an edge, and the other is the temporal cost of G, in which the goal is to minimize the total number of labels used. Optimization of these parameters is performed subject to some connectivity constraint. We prove several lower and upper bounds for the temporality and the temporal cost of some very basic graph families such as rings, directed acyclic graphs, and trees

    Farsighted Risk Mitigation of Lateral Movement Using Dynamic Cognitive Honeypots

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    Lateral movement of advanced persistent threats has posed a severe security challenge. Due to the stealthy and persistent nature of the lateral movement, defenders need to consider time and spatial locations holistically to discover latent attack paths across a large time-scale and achieve long-term security for the target assets. In this work, we propose a time-expanded random network to model the stochastic service links in the user-host enterprise network and the adversarial lateral movement. We design cognitive honeypots at idle production nodes and disguise honey links as service links to detect and deter the adversarial lateral movement. The location of the honeypot changes randomly at different times and increases the honeypots' stealthiness. Since the defender does not know whether, when, and where the initial intrusion and the lateral movement occur, the honeypot policy aims to reduce the target assets' Long-Term Vulnerability (LTV) for proactive and persistent protection. We further characterize three tradeoffs, i.e., the probability of interference, the stealthiness level, and the roaming cost. To counter the curse of multiple attack paths, we propose an iterative algorithm and approximate the LTV with the union bound for computationally efficient deployment of cognitive honeypots. The results of the vulnerability analysis illustrate the bounds, trends, and a residue of LTV when the adversarial lateral movement has infinite duration. Besides honeypot policies, we obtain a critical threshold of compromisability to guide the design and modification of the current system parameters for a higher level of long-term security. We show that the target node can achieve zero vulnerability under infinite stages of lateral movement if the probability of movement deterrence is not less than the threshold
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