557 research outputs found

    Bubble transport Mechanism: Indications for a gas bubble-mediated inoculation of benthic methanothrophs into the water column

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    Highlights • A new bentho-pelagic transport mechanism of microorganisms is hypothesized • A bubble transport hypothesis was tested using a new gas bubble-collecting device • Bubble-mediated transport rate of methanotrophs was quantified at a gas vent • The Bubble Transport Mechanism may influence the pelagic methane sink Abstract The importance of methanotrophic microorganisms in the sediment and water column for balancing marine methane budgets is well accepted. However, whether methanotrophic populations are distinct for benthic and pelagic environments or are the result of exchange processes between the two, remains an area of active research. We conducted a field pilot study at the Rostocker Seep site (Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore California, USA) to test the hypothesis that bubble-mediated transport of methane-oxidizing microorganisms from the sediment into the water column is quantifiable. Measurements included dissolved methane concentration and showed a strong influence of methane seepage on the water-column methane distribution with strongly elevated sea surface concentrations with respect to atmospheric equilibrium (saturation ratio ~17,000%). Using Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD FISH) analysis, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were detected in the sediment and the water column, whereas anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME-2) were detected exclusively in the sediment. Critical data for testing the hypothesis were collected using a novel bubble catcher that trapped naturally emanating seep gas bubbles and any attached particles approximately 15 cm above the seafloor. Bubble catcher experiments were carried out directly above a natural bubble seep vent and at a nearby reference site, for which an “engineered” nitrogen bubble vent without sediment contact was created. Our experiments indicate the existence of a “Bubble Transport Mechanism”, which transports MOB from the sediment into the water column. In contrast, ANME-2 were not detected in the bubble catcher. The Bubble Transport Mechanism could have important implications for the connectivity between benthic and pelagic methanotrophic communities at methane seep sites

    Biomarker and Histopathology Evaluation of Patients with Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated with Galunisertib, Lomustine, or the Combination of Galunisertib and Lomustine

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    Galunisertib, a Transforming growth factor-βRI (TGF-βRI) kinase inhibitor, blocks TGF-β-mediated tumor growth in glioblastoma. In a three-arm study of galunisertib (300 mg/day) monotherapy (intermittent dosing; each cycle =14 days on/14 days off), lomustine monotherapy, and galunisertib plus lomustine therapy, baseline tumor tissue was evaluated to identify markers associated with tumor stage (e.g., histopathology, Ki67, glial fibrillary acidic protein) and TGF-β-related signaling (e.g., pSMAD2). Other pharmacodynamic assessments included chemokine, cytokine, and T cell subsets alterations. 158 patients were randomized to galunisertib plus lomustine (n = 79), galunisertib (n = 39) and placebo+lomustine (n = 40). In 127 of these patients, tissue was adequate for central pathology review and biomarker work. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) negative glioblastoma patients with baseline pSMAD2+ in cytoplasm had median overall survival (OS) 9.5 months vs. 6.9 months for patients with no tumor pSMAD2 expression (p = 0.4574). Eight patients were IDH1 R132H+ and had a median OS of 10.4 months compared to 6.9 months for patients with negative IDH1 R132H (p = 0.5452). IDH1 status was associated with numerically higher plasma macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), higher whole blood FOXP3, and reduced tumor CD3+ T cell counts. Compared to the baseline, treatment with galunisertib monotherapy preserved CD4+ T cell counts, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and the CD4/CD8 ratio. The T-regulatory cell compartment was associated with better OS with MDC/CCL22 as a prominent prognostic marker. View Full-Tex

    Adult cerebellar glioblastoma categorized into a pediatric methylation class with a unique radiological and histological appearance: illustrative case

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    BACKGROUND Recent studies report that cerebellar glioblastoma (GBM) is categorized into the RTK1 methylation class. GBM pediatric RTK (pedRTK) subtypes are distinct from those of adult GBM. We present a unique adult case of cerebellar GBM classified into the pedRTK subtype.OBSERVATIONS Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneous enhancing lesion in the right cerebellum in a 56-year-old woman presenting with ataxia and dizziness. Arterial spin labeling and angiographic findings and the intraoperative orange-colored tumor appearance were reminiscent of hemangioblastoma. She showed an atypical presentation in terms of high glucose metabolism. The histological diagnosis was high-grade glioma with differentiation similar to central nervous system neuroblastoma. The methylation class was GBM pedRTK1. Consistent with this classification, immunoexpression was positive for SOX10 and negative for ANKRD55. She underwent craniospinal radiotherapy (23.4 Gy) with a boost to the tumor bed (total 55.8 Gy). Twelve courses of temozolomide therapy were administered. There was no recurrence 18 months after surgery.LESSONS Radiological and intraoperative findings, such as hemangioblastoma and high glucose metabolism, were notable characteristics in the present case. Both glial and neuronal differentiation and SOX10 immunoexpression were presenting pathological features. Similar cerebellar GBMs might form a previously unestablished subtype. Establishing effective molecular diagnoses is important

    Testing of the Survivin Suppressant YM155 in a Large Panel of Drug-Resistant Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

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    The survivin suppressant YM155 is a drug candidate for neuroblastoma. Here, we tested YM155 in 101 neuroblastoma cell lines (19 parental cell lines, 82 drug-adapted sublines). Seventy seven (77) cell lines displayed YM155 IC50_{50}s in the range of clinical YM155 concentrations. ABCB1 was an important determinant of YM155 resistance. The activity of the ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar ranged from being similar to that of the structurally different ABCB1 inhibitor verapamil to being 65-fold higher. ABCB1 sequence variations may be responsible for this, suggesting that the design of variant-specific ABCB1 inhibitors may be possible. Further, we showed that ABCC1 confers YM155 resistance. Previously, p53 depletion had resulted in decreased YM155 sensitivity. However, TP53TP53-mutant cells were not generally less sensitive to YM155 than TP53TP53 wild-type cells in this study. Finally, YM155 cross-resistance profiles differed between cells adapted to drugs as similar as cisplatin and carboplatin. In conclusion, the large cell line panel was necessary to reveal an unanticipated complexity of the YM155 response in neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Novel findings include that ABCC1 mediates YM155 resistance and that YM155 cross-resistance profiles differ between cell lines adapted to drugs as similar as cisplatin and carboplatin

    A role for β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in human body-weight regulation

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    SummaryPro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expressing neurons mediate the regulation of orexigenic drive by peripheral hormones such as leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, and insulin. Most research effort has focused on α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) as the predominant POMC-derived neuropeptide in the central regulation of human energy balance and body weight. Here we report a missense mutation within the coding region of the POMC-derived peptide β-MSH (Y5C-β-MSH) and its association with early-onset human obesity. In vitro and in vivo data as well as postmortem human brain studies indicate that the POMC-derived neuropeptide β-MSH plays a critical role in the hypothalamic control of body weight in humans

    The miR-139-5p regulates proliferation of supratentorial paediatric low-grade gliomas by targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signalling

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    Paediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs) are a heterogeneous group of brain tumours associated with a high overall survival: however, they are prone to recur and supratentorial lesions are difficult to resect, being associated with high percentage of disease recurrence. Our aim was to shed light on the biology of pLGGs

    Rapid detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate in frozen sections of IDH mutant tumors by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

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    All isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant solid neoplasms exhibit highly elevated levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Detection of 2HG in tumor tissues currently is performed by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- or LC-MS) or biochemical detection. While these methods are highly accurate, a considerable amount of time for tissue preparation and a relatively high amount of tissue is required for testing. We here present a rapid approach to detect 2HG in brain tumor tissue based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). We analyzed 26 brain tumor samples with known IDH1 or IDH2 mutation and compared readouts to those from 28 brain tumor samples of wildtype IDH status. IDH mutant samples exhibited a clear positive signal for 2HG which was not observed in any of the IDH wildtype tumors. Our analytical pipeline allowed for 2HG detection in less than 5 min. Data were validated by determining 2HG levels in all tissues with a biochemical assay. In conclusion, we developed a protocol for rapid detection of 2HG levels and illustrate the possibility to use MALDI-TOF for the detection of metabolites on frozen tissue sections in a diagnostic setting

    The Wnt secretion protein Evi/Gpr177 promotes glioma tumourigenesis

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    Malignant astrocytomas are highly aggressive brain tumours with poor prognosis. While a number of structural genomic changes and dysregulation of signalling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and druggable targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that the Wnt-specific secretory protein Evi (also known as GPR177/Wntless/Sprinter) is overexpressed in astrocytic gliomas. Evi/Wls is a core Wnt signalling component and a specific regulator of pan-Wnt protein secretion, affecting both canonical and non-canonical signalling. We demonstrate that its depletion in glioma and glioma-derived stem-like cells led to decreased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Evi/Wls silencing in glioma cells reduced cell migration and the capacity to form tumours in vivo. We further show that Evi/Wls overexpression is sufficient to promote downstream Wnt signalling. Taken together, our study identifies Evi/Wls as an essential regulator of glioma tumourigenesis, identifying a pathway-specific protein trafficking factor as an oncogene and offering novel therapeutic options to interfere with the aberrant regulation of growth factors at the site of production

    Reference on copy number variations in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: Implications for diagnostic approach

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    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) poses a diagnostic challenge. The present study relies on methylation-based predictions and focuses on copy number variations (CNV) in PXA. We identified 551 tumors from patients having received the histologic diagnosis or differential diagnosis pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) uploaded to the web page www.molecularneuropathology.org. Of these 551 tumors, 165 received the prediction “methylation class (anaplastic) pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma” with a calibrated score >=0.9 by the brain tumor classifier version v12.8 and, therefore, were defined the PXA reference set designated mcPXAref. In addition to these 165 mcPXAref, 767 other tumors received the prediction mcPXA with a calibrated score >=0.9 but without a histological PXA diagnosis. The total number of individual tumors predicted by histology and/or by methylome based classification as PXA, mcPXA or both was 1318, and these were designated the study cohort. The selection of a control cohort was guided by methylation-based predictions recurrently observed for the other 386/551 tumors diagnosed as histologic PXA. 131/386 received predictions for another entity besides PXA with a score >=0.9. Control tumors corresponding to the 11 most common other predictions were selected, adding up to 1100 reference cases. CNV profiles were calculated from all methylation datasets of the study and control cohorts. Special attention was given to the 7/10 signature, gene amplifications and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B. Comparison of CNV in the subsets of the study cohort and the control cohort were used to establish relations independent of histological diagnoses. Tumors in mcPXA were highly homogenous in regard to CNV alterations, irrespective of the histological diagnoses. The 7/10 signature commonly present in glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype, was present in 15-20% of mcPXA, whereas amplification of oncogenes (likewise common in glioblastoma) was very rare in mcPXA (<1%). In contrast, the histology-based PXA group exhibited high variance in regard to methylation classes as well as to CNVs. Our data add to the notion, that histologically defined PXA likely only represent a subset of the biological disease

    Targeting class I histone deacetylase 2 in MYC amplified group 3 medulloblastoma

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    Introduction: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in children. Four subgroups with distinct genetic, epigenetic and clinical characteristics have been identified. Survival remains particularly poor in patients with Group 3 tumors harbouring a MYC amplification. We herein explore the molecular mechanisms and translational implications of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in MYC driven MBs. Material and Methods: Expression of HDACs in primary MB subgroups was compared to normal brain tissue. A panel of MB cell lines, including Group 3 MYC amplified cell lines, were used as model systems. Cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) selectively targeting class I or IIa HDACs. Depletion of HDAC2 was performed. Intracellular HDAC activity, cellular viability, metabolic activity, caspase activity, cell cycle progression, RNA and protein expression were analyzed. Results: HDAC2 was found to be overexpressed in MB subgroups with poor prognosis (SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) compared to normal brain and the WNT subgroup. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the class I HDACs reduced metabolic activity, cell number, and viability in contrast to inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Increased sensitivity to HDACi was specifically observed in MYC amplified cells. Depletion of HDAC2 increased H4 acetylation and induced cell death. Simulation of clinical pharmacokinetics showed time-dependent on target activity that correlated with binding kinetics of HDACi compounds. Conclusions: We conclude that HDAC2 is a valid drug target in patients with MYC amplified MB. HDACi should cover HDAC2 in their inhibitory profile and timing and dosing regimen in clinical trials should take binding kinetics of compounds into consideration
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