256 research outputs found

    Artificial Intelligence and Health in Nepal

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    The growth in information technology and computer capacity has opened up opportunities to deal with much and much larger data sets than even a decade ago. There has been a technological revolution of big data and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Perhaps many readers would immediately think about robotic surgery or self-driving cars, but there is much more to AI. This Short Communication starts with an overview of the key terms, including AI, machine learning, deep learning and Big Data. This Short Communication highlights so developments of AI in health that could benefit a low-income country like Nepal and stresses the need for Nepal’s health and education systems to track such developments and apply them locally. Moreover, Nepal needs to start growing its own AI expertise to help develop national or South Asian solutions. This would require investing in local resources such as access to computer power/ capacity as well as training young Nepali to work in AI

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF): Assessing the impact of social work research on society

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    This paper reviews one aspect, impact, of the forthcoming assessment of research in UK universities, the Research Excellence Framework (REF), and examines its meaning and potential for enhanced partnerships between social work practice and academia in the context of the current economic crisis. Examples of case studies being developed to show how research has societal impact are described and some of the complexities of what, on the surface appears to echo social work 19s desire to make a positive difference to the lives of people in society, are drawn out. The importance of the REF for the integration of social work practice and academia have been rehearsed many times. This paper argues that making an impact is everybody 19s concern and practitioners and those who use social work services and their carers have a role to play in its creation and identification

    How young people find out about their family history of Huntington's disease

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    Family communication about adult-onset hereditary illness can be problematic, leaving some relatives inadequately informed or ignorant of their risk. Although studies have explored the barriers and facilitators in family communication about genetic risk, questions remain about when, what, how and indeed whether to tell relatives. The process of disclosure is also dependent upon the way in which genetic information is realized and understood by recipients, but research here is limited. Our paper explores young people’s experiences of finding out about a family history of the hereditary disorder Huntington’s disease (HD). In-depth interviews explored how and when young people found out, their reactions to different communication styles and any impact on family relations. We recruited young people through the North of Scotland regional genetics clinic and the Scottish Huntington’s Association (SHA). Thirtythree young people (aged 9–28) were interviewed. A qualitative analysis was undertaken which revealed four types of disclosure experiences: (1) having always been told, (2) gradually told, (3) HD was kept a secret, or (4) HD as a new diagnosis. In particular, the timing and style of disclosure from relatives, and one’s stage of awareness, were fundamental in structuring participants’ accounts. This article focuses on questions of when, how and indeed whether to tell children, and sits within a broader set of research and practice issues about what professionals and families (should) tell children about parental illness and genetic risk.Wellcome Trust’s Programme in Biomedical Ethic

    Why are so many Nepali women killing themselves? A review of key issues

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    Background: For decades the maternal mortality in Nepal was the lead cause of death among women, with great improvements in the maternal mortality ratio in the twentieth century the second most common cause has become more prominent. Suicide is now one of the leading causes of death for women of a reproductive age in Nepal. This scoping review brings together the key available literature to identify the causes of suicide among women in Nepal. Methods: Published and unpublished studies and the grey literature published on women and suicide related to Nepal between 2000 and 2014 were searched and included in this review. Results: This review suggested a number of explanations for the high rate of suicide among women including: partner violence, alcoholism and polygamy, the culture of silence, early age marriage and prolonged child bearing and dependency on men for financial security. Conclusion: This paper highlights some challenges and suggests ways forward in the improvement of mental health in Nepal

    Size-dependent melting point depression of nickel nanoparticles

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    We investigate the phase-transition behaviour of nickel nanoparticles (3–6 nm) via dynamic TEM. The nanoparticles were synthesized within a reverse microemulsion and then monitored via dynamic TEM simultaneously while undergoing controlled heating. The size-dependent melting point depression experimentally observed is compared with, and is in good agreement with existing thermodynamic and molecular dynamic predictions

    Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies in Africa: a systematic review

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    Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains of global significance and there is a need to target sub-Saharan Africa since it is the hardest hit region worldwide. Religion and more specifically faith-based organisations can have an effect on socio-cultural factors that increase or decrease the risk of infection; and offer preventative interventions to the wider community.Objective: To understand the influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention in Africa.Method: The main search engine of a British university ‘mysearch’ was used as this incorporates all relevant databases. Studies were also retrieved by searches within Google scholar, PubMed and reference lists of included papers were hand searched. The authors assessed the relevance of each article separately against the inclusion criteria. The data extraction form was piloted by the first author and cross-checked by the other authors.Results: Seven studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Seven individual themes were identified. However, for the purposes of focus within this paper only two themes were focused on.Conclusion: Given the accessibility of faith-based organisations (FBOs) and the coverage of religion among the population, FBOs are potentially important players in HIV prevention. Therefore, more resources and support should be given to support their health promotion strategies.Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic revie

    Co-authors, colleagues, and contributors: Complexities in collaboration and sharing lessons on academic writing

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    Academic writing, especially in the health field, is usually an interdisciplinary team effort. This paper highlights some of the trials, tribulations, and benefits of working with co-authors. This includes collaborations and co-authorship between academics from different disciplines, academics of different level of careers, and authors from countries of varying economies i.e., high-income countries (HICs) and from low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper also provides advice in the form of several useful tips to lead authors and co-authors to support collaborative working

    Health consequences of sex trafficking: A systematic review

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    Background: Sex trafficking is one of the most common forms of human trafficking globally. It is associated with health, emotional, social, moral and legal problems. The victims of sex trafficking when returned home are often ignored. This study aimed to explore the health consequences of sex trafficking among women and children. Methods: Medline EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were systematically searched, from date of inception to July 2016 using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and text words on health risks and consequences of sex trafficking. Electronic searches were supplemented by searching the reference lists of included papers and citation tracking. Both Qualitative and quantitative primary studies published in English and exploring health-related problems among sex trafficked women and children were included in this review. Health outcomes considered were: physical, psychological or social risks and consequences of sex trafficking among women and children. No restrictions were applied to geographical regions as sex trafficking involves victims being trafficked between different countries, and within countries. Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers and narrative synthesis was conducted for this review. Results: A total of fifteen articles were included covering health risks and well-being related to sex trafficking. Sexual and physical violence among victims such as rape and repetitive stress and physical injuries were common. The prevalence of STI (sexually transmitted infections) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was also reported as high. Being trafficked at a young age, having been in brothels for a longer period and sexual violence and forced prostitution were linked with a higher risk for HIV infection. Physical health problems reported included headaches, fatigue, dizziness, back pain, memory problem, stomach pain, pelvic pain, gynaecological infections, weight loss, lesions or warts, unwanted pregnancies and abortions. The studies on mental health reported that depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were commonly reported health consequences among sex trafficking victims. Conclusion: there is a compelling need for interventions raising awareness about sex trafficking among young girls and women most at risk of being trafficked. Most studies in this review have focussed on the physical health problems of the trafficked victims although there is also remarkable mental burden amongst those victims. Key policy makers, government officials, public health officials, health care providers, legal authorities and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) should be made aware about the health risks and consequences of trafficking. Trafficking consequences should be recognised as a health issue and all the sectors involved including regulating bodies should collaborate to fight against sex trafficking. Due to the heterogeneity of the articles, no meta-analysis could be conducted
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