35 research outputs found

    Anti-colorectal cancer activity of an organometallic osmium arene azopyridine complex

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    This first in vivo antitumour activity for an organometallic osmium arene complex, [Os(eta(6)-p-cym)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF(6), is reported. The complex delays the growth of HCT116 human colon cancer xenografts in mice, with negligible toxicity. Its activity appears to involve redox mechanisms and its potency towards A2780 ovarian and A549 lung cancer cells is increased significantly in combination with L-buthionine-sulfoximine

    Current applications and future potential for bioinorganic chemistry in the development of anticancer drugs

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    This review illustrates notable recent progress in the field of medicinal bioinorganic chemistry as many new approaches to the design of innovative metal-based anticancer drugs are emerging. Current research addressing the problems associated with platinum drugs has focused on other metal-based therapeutics that have different modes of action and on prodrug and targeting strategies in an effort to diminish the side-effects of cisplatin chemotherapy

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles-cell interaction: New approaches to disclose the fate of membrane-bound and internalised nanoparticles

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    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are popular tools in bone regeneration, but they have also been used for gene delivery and as anticancer drugs. Understanding their mechanism of action, particularly for the latter application, is crucial to predict their toxicity. To this end, we aimed to elucidate the importance of nanoparticle membrane interactions in the cytotoxicity of MG-63 cells using two different types of nanoparticles. In addition, conventional techniques for studying nanoparticle internalisation were evaluated and compared with newer and less exploited approaches. Hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were used as suspensions or compacted as specular discs. Comparison between cells seeded on the discs and those supplemented with the nanoparticles allowed direct interaction of the cell membrane with the material to be ruled out as the main mechanism of toxicity. In addition, standard techniques such as flow cytometry were inconclusive when used to assess nanoparticles toxicity. Interestingly, the use of intracellular calcium fluorescent probes revealed the presence of a high number of calcium-rich vesicles after nanoparticle supplementation in cell culture. These structures could not be detected by transmission electron microscopy due to their liquid content. However, by using cryo-soft X-ray imaging, which was used to visualise the cellular ultrastructure without further treatment other than vitrification and to quantify the linear absorption coefficient of each organelle, it was possible to identify them as multivesicular bodies, potentially acting as calcium stores. In the study, an advanced state of degradation of the hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles within MG-63 cells was observed. Overall, we demonstrate that the combination of fluorescent calcium probes together with cryo-SXT is an excellent approach to investigate intracellular calcium, especially when found in its soluble form.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Efficacy and safety of D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (D,L-3-HB) treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

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    PURPOSE: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a life-threatening, ultrarare inborn error of metabolism. Case reports described successful D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (D,L-3-HB) treatment in severely affected MADD patients, but systematic data on efficacy and safety is lacking.METHODS: A systematic literature review and an international, retrospective cohort study on clinical presentation, D,L-3-HB treatment method, and outcome in MADD(-like) patients.RESULTS: Our study summarizes 23 MADD(-like) patients, including 14 new cases. Median age at clinical onset was two months (interquartile range [IQR]: 8 months). Median age at starting D,L-3-HB was seven months (IQR: 4.5 years). D,L-3-HB doses ranged between 100 and 2600ÔÇëmg/kg/day. Clinical improvement was reported in 16 patients (70%) for cardiomyopathy, leukodystrophy, liver symptoms, muscle symptoms, and/or respiratory failure. D,L-3-HB appeared not effective for neuropathy. Survival appeared longer upon D,L-3-HB compared with historical controls. Median time until first clinical improvement was one month, and ranged up to six months. Reported side effects included abdominal pain, constipation, dehydration, diarrhea, and vomiting/nausea. Median D,L-3-HB treatment duration was two years (IQR: 6 years). D,L-3-HB treatment was discontinued in 12 patients (52%).CONCLUSION: The strength of the current study is the international pooling of data demonstrating that D,L-3-HB treatment can be effective and safe in MADD(-like) patients.</p

    Functionalization of osmium arene anticancer complexes with (poly)arginine : effect on cellular uptake, internalization, and cytotoxicity

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    Attaching peptides to metallodrugs may result in improved biological properties of the complexes. The potential use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as cell delivery vectors is attractive, since directed cell uptake of (metallo)drugs remains a major challenge in anticancer drug design. In this work, we report the synthesis of peptide conjugates of the organometallic OsII anticancer complex [(╬Ě6-biphenyl)Os(picolinate)Cl] with different arginine (Arg) chain lengths. Complexes conjugated to Arg5 or Arg8 at the 5-position of the picoline ring increase Os uptake into A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by ca. 2├Ś and 10├Ś, respectively, whereas a single Arg had no effect. Furthermore, a 15-fold increase in binding of Os to DNA, a potential target for these complexes, was observed for Arg8 compared to the Arg1 conjugate. The Arg5 and Arg8 conjugates exhibited fast kinetics of binding to calf thymus DNA and an ability to precipitate DNA at very low concentrations. In serum-free medium, the Arg8 complex was cytotoxic (IC50 33 ╬╝M) and appears to be a rare example of a bioactive organometallic peptide conjugate. Experiments on CHO cells deficient in DNA repair suggested that unrepaired DNA damage contributes to the cytotoxicity of the Arg5 and Arg8 conjugates. These studies demonstrate the potential for use of cell- and nucleus-penetrating peptides in targeting organometallic arene anticancer complexes

    Osmium arene anticancer complexes

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    Drawbacks associated with anticancer chemotherapeutic cisplatin include tumour drug resistance, non-effectiveness against all tumours and lack of tumour-specificity resulting in severe side-effects (e.g. nausea, hair loss and kidney toxicity). The use of other metals such as transition metals rutheniumandosmium, may address the problems associated with platinum drugs and have received increased interest over the years. In this thesis the biological activity and aqueous solution chemistry of half-sandwichosmium (II) compounds of the type [(arene)OsII(X)(YZ)] n+ is explored. Chelating ligands containing nitrogen or nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms (N, NandN, O-chelatingligands) are investigated. It is shown that the chelating ligand has a large effect on the aqueous reactivity of the complexes. The introduction of functional groups on the chelate allowed for the ÔÇśfine-tuningÔÇÖ of the aqueous reactivity and nucleobase binding of the complexes. Also the nature of the coordinating arene was found to have an important effect on their biological activity. This could be rationalised by increased hydrophobicity with more extended arenes such as biphenylandtetrahydroanthracene, resulting in increased cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity. Conjugating cell penetrating peptides to the complexes resulted in improved biological properties and opened a new way for functionalisation of the compounds. Several compounds reported in this thesis exhibit promising activity in the ovarian, colon and lung cancer cell lines and some could overcome cisplatin resistance in ovarian cisplatin resistant cell lines. Initial studies revealed cell death via apoptosis and the possible involvement of mitochondria in the apoptotic pathway. These results point to a novel pathway of activation for these complexes which is advantageous for addressing chemoresistance and effectiveness to oher types of cancers. This work shows that the biological properties of these compounds can be tuned by choice of ligands and also provides initial evidence for a novel pathway of activation.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Great Britain) (EPSRC)University of Warwick (UoW)University of Edinburgh (UoE)Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry (SBIC)GBUnited Kingdo

    Osmium arene anticancer complexes

    No full text
    Drawbacks associated with anticancer chemotherapeutic cisplatin include tumour drug resistance, non-effectiveness against all tumours and lack of tumour-specificity resulting in severe side-effects (e.g. nausea, hair loss and kidney toxicity). The use of other metals such as transition metals rutheniumandosmium, may address the problems associated with platinum drugs and have received increased interest over the years. In this thesis the biological activity and aqueous solution chemistry of half-sandwichosmium (II) compounds of the type [(arene)OsII(X)(YZ)] n+ is explored. Chelating ligands containing nitrogen or nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms (N, NandN, O-chelatingligands) are investigated. It is shown that the chelating ligand has a large effect on the aqueous reactivity of the complexes. The introduction of functional groups on the chelate allowed for the ÔÇśfine-tuningÔÇÖ of the aqueous reactivity and nucleobase binding of the complexes. Also the nature of the coordinating arene was found to have an important effect on their biological activity. This could be rationalised by increased hydrophobicity with more extended arenes such as biphenylandtetrahydroanthracene, resulting in increased cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity. Conjugating cell penetrating peptides to the complexes resulted in improved biological properties and opened a new way for functionalisation of the compounds. Several compounds reported in this thesis exhibit promising activity in the ovarian, colon and lung cancer cell lines and some could overcome cisplatin resistance in ovarian cisplatin resistant cell lines. Initial studies revealed cell death via apoptosis and the possible involvement of mitochondria in the apoptotic pathway. These results point to a novel pathway of activation for these complexes which is advantageous for addressing chemoresistance and effectiveness to oher types of cancers. This work shows that the biological properties of these compounds can be tuned by choice of ligands and also provides initial evidence for a novel pathway of activation

    DNA modified MSN-films as versatile biointerfaces to study stem cell adhesion processes

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    A significant bottleneck in the clinical translation of stem cells remains eliciting the desired stem cell behavior once transplanted in the body. In their natural environment, stem cell fate is regulated by their interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM), mainly through integrin-mediated cell adhesion. 2D biointerfaces that selectively present ECM-derived ligands can be used as valuable tools to study and improve our understanding on how stem cells interact with their environment. Here we developed a new type of biointerface based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) which are interesting nanomaterials for biointerface engineering because they allow close control over surface physiochemical properties. To create the platform, DNA functionalized MSN (MSN-ssDNA) with varying PEG linker length were developed. Cell adhesion tripeptide RGD was conjugated to a complementary DNA strand, which could specifically bind to MSN-ssDNA to create MSN-dsDNA-RGD films. We showed that MSN-dsDNA-RGD films could promote hMSCs adhesion and spreading, whereas MSN-dsDNA films without RGD resulted in poor cell spreading with round morphology, and low cell adhesion. In addition, we showed that cell adhesion to the films is PEG length-dependent. The design of the platform allows easy incorporation of other and multiple ECM ligands, as well as soluble cues, making MSN-ssDNA based biointerfaces a novel tool to study ligand-stem cell interactions
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