7 research outputs found

    European regulations on the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine

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    Antimicrobial resistance endangers the successful combat of bacterial infections in humans and animals. The common use of antibiotic classes including those of high clinical value in human as well as veterinary medicine is a critical factor contributing to or suspected to promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance. New legal provisions laid down in veterinary drug legislations and related guidelines and advice are in force in the European Union to safeguard the effectiveness, accessibility and availability of antibiotics. Categorisation of antibiotics in classes of importance for treatment of infections of humans by the WHO was one of the first steps. This task is also undertaken for antibiotics for treatment of animals by the EMA's Antimicrobial Advice Ad Hoc Expert Group. The new veterinary Regulation (EU) 2019/6 has extended restrictions for use of some antibiotics in animals to a full ban of certain antibiotics. While some (but not all) antibiotic compounds not being authorized in veterinary medicine may still be used in companion animals more strict provisions were already applicable for treatment of food producing animal species. Distinct regulations are in place for the treatment of animals kept in large numbers in flocks. Initial regulations focussed on the protection of consumers from residues of veterinary drugs in food commodities, new regulations address prudent (not routinely) and responsible selection, prescription and use of antibiotics, and have improved the practicality for cascade use outside the terms of marketing authorisation. Mandatory recording of use of veterinary medicinal products for food safety reasons is extended to rules for veterinarians and owners or holders of animals to regularly report the use of antibiotics for the purpose of official surveillance of consumption. National sales data of antibiotic veterinary medicinal products have been collected on a voluntary basis until 2022 by ESVAC, which has created awareness of major differences between EU member states. A significant decline in sales was reported for third and fourth generation cephalosporines, polymyxins (colistin), and (fluoro)quinolones since the initiation in 2011

    The efficacy of subcutaneous slow-release melatonin implants in the prevention of canine flank alopecia recurrence is uncertain: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

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    BACKGROUND: Canine flank alopecia (CFA) is characterized by seasonally recurring noninflammatory, occasionally hyperpigmented alopecia predominantly in the thoracolumbar area. Previous studies suggest that reduced production of endogenous melatonin may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition, and placebo-controlled studies on the efficacy of preventative melatonin treatment are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous slow-release melatonin implants in the prevention of CFA recurrence. ANIMALS: Twenty-one client-owned dogs with a history of CFA were included in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At time (T)0, a general physical and dermatological examination was performed on each dog, blood was collected for serum biochemistry analysis and two skin biopsies were taken from alopecic areas on the nonsedated affected dogs after subcutaneous injection with 2% lidocaine. Dogs with normal blood work and histological results compatible with CFA were included in the study. Participating dogs were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 18 mg melatonin subcutaneously in the interscapular area, approximately 2 months before expected CFA onset (T1). CFA recurrence was scored qualitatively as complete, ≤50% recurrence, or no recurrence at 5 and 7 months after the intervention (T2 and T3, respectively). RESULTS: At T3, in dogs treated with placebo (nine of 17), the percentages for complete recurrence, ≤50% recurrence and no recurrence were 44%, 0% and 56%, respectively. In dogs treated with melatonin (eight of 17), these percentages were 25%, 50% and 25%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between melatonin-treated dogs and placebo-treated dogs (p = 0.40). In three of eight melatonin-treated dogs, mild transient swelling was observed at the injection site. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence that an 18 mg melatonin implant treatment, although well-tolerated, is efficacious in preventing recurrence of CFA in affected dogs

    Quantifying topical antimicrobial use before and during participation in an antimicrobial stewardship programme in Dutch companion animal clinics

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    In this project we collected antimicrobial prescription data from 44 Dutch companion animal clinics from July 2012 until June 2018. The dataset contains monthly prescription and clinical animal population data on topical antimicrobial use (AMU) in dogs, cats and rabbits from the companion animal clinics. The study period was divided in two periods; the pre-intervention period (July 2012-June 2015) and the intervention period (March 2016 - June 2018) when clinics participated in an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). As quantification metric, the Defined Daily Dose for Animals (DDDA) was used and a mixed effect times series model with auto-regression was applied to monthly topical AMU data. The aim of the present study was to quantify topical AMU in 44 Dutch companion animal clinics before and during their participation in an ASP, to explore the effect of participating in the ASP on topical AMU

    Efficacy and safety of supplemental melatonin for delayed sleep–wake phase disorder in children: an overview

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    Delayed sleep–wake phase disorder (DSPD) is the most frequently occurring intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorder, with the highest prevalence in adolescence. Melatonin is the first-choice drug treatment. However, to date melatonin (in a controlled-release formulation) is only authorised for the treatment of insomnia in children with autism or Smiths-Magenis syndrome. Concerns have been raised with respect to the safety and efficacy of melatonin for more general use in children, as melatonin has not undergone the formal safety testing required for a new drug, especially long-term safety in children. Melatonin is known to have profound effects on the reproductive systems of rodents, sheep and primates, as well as effects on the cardiovascular, immune and metabolic systems. The objective of the present article was therefore to establish the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for use in children with DSPD, based on in vitro, animal model and clinical studies by reviewing the relevant literature in the Medline database using PubMed. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice showed toxic effects only at extremely high melatonin doses (>400 mg/kg), some tens of thousands of times more than the recommended dose of 3–6 mg in a person weighing 70 kg. Longer-term administration of melatonin improved the general health and survival of ageing rats or mice. A full range of in vitro/in vivo genotoxicity tests consistently found no evidence that melatonin is genotoxic. Similarly long term administration of melatonin in rats or mice did not have carcinogenic effects, or negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine and reproductive systems. With regard to clinical studies, in 19 randomised controlled trials comprising 841 children and adolescents with DSPD, melatonin treatment (usually of 4 weeks duration) consistently improved sleep latency by 22–60 min, without any serious adverse effects. Similarly, 17 randomised controlled trials, comprising 1374 children and adolescents, supplementing melatonin for indications other than DSPD, reported no relevant adverse effects. In addition, 4 long-term safety studies (1.0–10.8 yr) supplementing exogenous melatonin found no substantial deviation of the development of children with respect to sleep quality, puberty development and mental health scores. Finally, post-marketing data for an immediate-release melatonin formulation (Bio-melatonin), used in the UK since 2008 as an unlicensed medicine for sleep disturbance in children, recorded no adverse events to date on sales of approximately 600,000 packs, equivalent to some 35 million individual 3 mg tablet doses (MHRA yellow card adverse event recording scheme). In conclusion, evidence has been provided that melatonin is an efficacious and safe chronobiotic drug for the treatment of DSPD in children, provided that it is administered at the correct time (3–5 h before endogenous melatonin starts to rise in dim light (DLMO)), and in the correct (minimal effective) dose. As the status of circadian rhythmicity may change during long-time treatment, it is recommended to stop melatonin treatment at least once a year (preferably during the summer holidays)

    Efficacy and safety of supplemental melatonin for delayed sleep–wake phase disorder in children: an overview

    No full text
    Delayed sleep–wake phase disorder (DSPD) is the most frequently occurring intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorder, with the highest prevalence in adolescence. Melatonin is the first-choice drug treatment. However, to date melatonin (in a controlled-release formulation) is only authorised for the treatment of insomnia in children with autism or Smiths-Magenis syndrome. Concerns have been raised with respect to the safety and efficacy of melatonin for more general use in children, as melatonin has not undergone the formal safety testing required for a new drug, especially long-term safety in children. Melatonin is known to have profound effects on the reproductive systems of rodents, sheep and primates, as well as effects on the cardiovascular, immune and metabolic systems. The objective of the present article was therefore to establish the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for use in children with DSPD, based on in vitro, animal model and clinical studies by reviewing the relevant literature in the Medline database using PubMed. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice showed toxic effects only at extremely high melatonin doses (>400 mg/kg), some tens of thousands of times more than the recommended dose of 3–6 mg in a person weighing 70 kg. Longer-term administration of melatonin improved the general health and survival of ageing rats or mice. A full range of in vitro/in vivo genotoxicity tests consistently found no evidence that melatonin is genotoxic. Similarly long term administration of melatonin in rats or mice did not have carcinogenic effects, or negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine and reproductive systems. With regard to clinical studies, in 19 randomised controlled trials comprising 841 children and adolescents with DSPD, melatonin treatment (usually of 4 weeks duration) consistently improved sleep latency by 22–60 min, without any serious adverse effects. Similarly, 17 randomised controlled trials, comprising 1374 children and adolescents, supplementing melatonin for indications other than DSPD, reported no relevant adverse effects. In addition, 4 long-term safety studies (1.0–10.8 yr) supplementing exogenous melatonin found no substantial deviation of the development of children with respect to sleep quality, puberty development and mental health scores. Finally, post-marketing data for an immediate-release melatonin formulation (Bio-melatonin), used in the UK since 2008 as an unlicensed medicine for sleep disturbance in children, recorded no adverse events to date on sales of approximately 600,000 packs, equivalent to some 35 million individual 3 mg tablet doses (MHRA yellow card adverse event recording scheme). In conclusion, evidence has been provided that melatonin is an efficacious and safe chronobiotic drug for the treatment of DSPD in children, provided that it is administered at the correct time (3–5 h before endogenous melatonin starts to rise in dim light (DLMO)), and in the correct (minimal effective) dose. As the status of circadian rhythmicity may change during long-time treatment, it is recommended to stop melatonin treatment at least once a year (preferably during the summer holidays)

    The efficacy of subcutaneous slow-release melatonin implants in the prevention of canine flank alopecia recurrence is uncertain: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: Canine flank alopecia (CFA) is characterized by seasonally recurring noninflammatory, occasionally hyperpigmented alopecia predominantly in the thoracolumbar area. Previous studies suggest that reduced production of endogenous melatonin may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition, and placebo-controlled studies on the efficacy of preventative melatonin treatment are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous slow-release melatonin implants in the prevention of CFA recurrence. ANIMALS: Twenty-one client-owned dogs with a history of CFA were included in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At time (T)0, a general physical and dermatological examination was performed on each dog, blood was collected for serum biochemistry analysis and two skin biopsies were taken from alopecic areas on the nonsedated affected dogs after subcutaneous injection with 2% lidocaine. Dogs with normal blood work and histological results compatible with CFA were included in the study. Participating dogs were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 18 mg melatonin subcutaneously in the interscapular area, approximately 2 months before expected CFA onset (T1). CFA recurrence was scored qualitatively as complete, ≤50% recurrence, or no recurrence at 5 and 7 months after the intervention (T2 and T3, respectively). RESULTS: At T3, in dogs treated with placebo (nine of 17), the percentages for complete recurrence, ≤50% recurrence and no recurrence were 44%, 0% and 56%, respectively. In dogs treated with melatonin (eight of 17), these percentages were 25%, 50% and 25%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between melatonin-treated dogs and placebo-treated dogs (p = 0.40). In three of eight melatonin-treated dogs, mild transient swelling was observed at the injection site. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence that an 18 mg melatonin implant treatment, although well-tolerated, is efficacious in preventing recurrence of CFA in affected dogs

    Quantitative assessment of antimicrobial resistance in livestock during the course of a nationwide antimicrobial use reduction in the Netherlands.

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    OBJECTIVES To quantify associations between antimicrobial use and acquired resistance in indicator Escherichia coli over a period of time which involved sector-wide antimicrobial use reductions in broilers and pigs (years 2004-14), veal calves (2007-14) and dairy cattle (2005-14). Prevalence estimates of resistance were predicted for a hypothetical further decrease in antimicrobial use. METHODS Data reported annually for the resistance surveillance programme in the Netherlands were retrieved. Two multivariate random-effects logistic models per animal sector were used to relate total and class-specific antimicrobial use (as defined daily dosages per animal per year, DDDA/Y) with the probability of E. coli resistance to a panel of 10 antimicrobial agents. RESULTS Positive dose-response relationships (ORs) were obtained from all models. Specific resistance phenotypes were more often associated with total antimicrobial use than with class-specific use. The most robust associations were found in pigs and veal calves. Resistance to historically widely used antimicrobials (e.g. penicillins, tetracyclines) was, in relative terms, less influenced by drug use changes over time than resistance to newer or less prescribed antimicrobials (e.g. third-/fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones). In pigs and veal calves, prevalence estimates for the most common resistance phenotypes were projected to decline ∼5%-25% during 2014-16 if total antimicrobial use reduction reached 80%; projections for poultry and dairy cows were more modest. CONCLUSIONS Epidemiological evidence indicated that drug use history and co-selection of resistance are key elements for perpetuation of resistance. Data suggest that recent Dutch policies aimed at reducing total use of antimicrobials have decreased E. coli resistance in the pig and veal calf production sectors while the impact on the dairy cattle and poultry sectors is less clear
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