1,052 research outputs found

    Search for methylamine in high mass hot cores

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    We aim to detect methylamine, CH3_{3}NH2_{2}, in a variety of hot cores and use it as a test for the importance of photon-induced chemistry in ice mantles and mobility of radicals. Specifically, CH3_3NH2_2 cannot be formed from atom addition to CO whereas other NH2_2-containing molecules such as formamide, NH2_2CHO, can. Submillimeter spectra of several massive hot core regions were taken with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Abundances are determined with the rotational diagram method where possible. Methylamine is not detected, giving upper limit column densities between 1.9 - 6.4 ×\times 1016^{16} cm2^{-2} for source sizes corresponding to the 100 K envelope radius. Combined with previously obtained JCMT data analyzed in the same way, abundance ratios of CH3_{3}NH2_{2}, NH2_{2}CHO and CH3_{3}CN with respect to each other and to CH3_{3}OH are determined. These ratios are compared with Sagittarius B2 observations, where all species are detected, and to hot core models. The observed ratios suggest that both methylamine and formamide are overproduced by up to an order of magnitude in hot core models. Acetonitrile is however underproduced. The proposed chemical schemes leading to these molecules are discussed and reactions that need further laboratory studies are identified. The upper limits obtained in this paper can be used to guide future observations, especially with ALMA.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Disk masses in the Orion Molecular Cloud-2: distinguishing time and environment

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    The mass evolution of protoplanetary disks is driven by both internal processes and external factors, such as photoevaporation. Disentangling these two effects, however, has remained difficult. We measure the dust masses of a sample of 132 disks in the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC)-2 region, and compare them to (i) externally photoevaporated disks in the Trapezium cluster, and (ii) disks in nearby low-mass star forming regions (SFRs). This allows us to test if initial disk properties are the same in high- and low-mass SFRs, and enables a direct measurement of the effect of external photoevaporation on disks. A ~ 20×420' \times 4' mosaic of 3 mm continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to measure the fluxes of 132 disks and 35 protostars >0.5 pc away from the Trapezium. We identify and characterize a sample of 34 point sources not included in the Spitzer catalog on which the sample is based. Of the disks, 37 (28%) are detected, with masses ranging from 7-270 M_e. The detection rate for protostars is higher at 69%. Disks near the Trapezium are found to be less massive by a factor 0.180.11+0.180.18^{+0.18}_{-0.11}, implying a mass loss rate of 8×1088\times10^{-8} M_sun/yr. Our observations allow us to distinguish the impact of time and environment on disk evolution in a single SFR. The disk mass distribution in OMC-2 is statistically indistinguishable from that in nearby low-mass SFRs, like Lupus and Taurus. We conclude that age is the main factor determining the evolution of these disks. This result is robust with respect to assumptions of dust temperature, sample incompleteness and biases. The difference between the OMC-2 and Trapezium cluster samples is consistent with mass loss driven by far-ultraviolet radiation near the Trapezium. Together, this implies that in isolation, disk formation and evolution proceed similarly, regardless of cloud mass.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A. 16 pages, 6 figure

    Evidence for episodic warm outflowing CO gas from the intermediate mass young stellar object IRAS 08470-4321

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    We present a R=10,000 M-band spectrum of LLN19 (IRAS 08470-4321), a heavily embedded intermediate-mass young stellar object located in the Vela Molecular Cloud, obtained with VLT-ISAAC. The data were fitted by a 2-slab cold-hot model and a wind model. The spectrum exhibits deep broad ro-vibrational absorption lines of 12CO v=1<-0 and 13CO v=1<-0. A weak CO ice feature at 4.67 micron is also detected. Differences in velocity indicate that the warm gas is distinct from the cold millimeter emitting gas, which may be associated with the absorption by cooler gas (45K). The outflowing warm gas at 300-400K and with a mass-loss rate varying between 0.48E-7 and 4.2E-7 MSun /yr can explain most of the absorption. Several absorption lines were spectrally resolved in subsequent spectra obtained with the VLT-CRIRES instrument. Multiple absorption substructures in the high-resolution (R=100,000) spectra indicate that the mass-loss is episodic with at least two major events that occurred recently (<28 years). The discrete mass-loss events together with the large turbulent width of the gas (dv=10-12 km/s) are consistent with the predictions of the Jet-Bow shock outflow and the wide-angle wind model. The CO gas/solid column density ratio of 20-100 in the line-of-sight confirms that the circumstellar environment of LLN~19 is warm. We also derive a 12C/13C ratio of 67 +/- 3, consistent with previous measurements in local molecular clouds but not with the higher ratios found in the envelope of other young stellar objects.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Photodissociation and photoionisation of atoms and molecules of astrophysical interest

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    A new collection of photodissociation and photoionisation cross sections for 102 atoms and molecules of astrochemical interest has been assembled, along with a brief review of the basic processes involved. These have been used to calculate dissociation and ionisation rates, with uncertainties, in a standard ultraviolet interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and wavelength-dependent radiation fields. The new ISRF rates generally agree within 30% with our previous compilations, with a few notable exceptions. The reduction of rates in shielded regions was calculated as a function of dust, molecular and atomic hydrogen, atomic C, and self-shielding column densities. The relative importance of shielding types depends on the species in question and the dust optical properties. The new data are publicly available from the Leiden photodissociation and ionisation database. Sensitivity of rates to variation of temperature and isotope, and cross section uncertainties, are tested. Tests were conducted with an interstellar-cloud chemical model, and find general agreement (within a factor of two) with the previous iteration of the Leiden database for the ISRF, and order-of-magnitude variations assuming various kinds of stellar radiation. The newly parameterised dust-shielding factors makes a factor-of-two difference to many atomic and molecular abundances relative to parameters currently in the UDfA and KIDA astrochemical reaction databases. The newly-calculated cosmic-ray induced photodissociation and ionisation rates differ from current standard values up to a factor of 5. Under high temperature and cosmic-ray-flux conditions the new rates alter the equilibrium abundances of abundant dark cloud abundances by up to a factor of two. The partial cross sections for H2O and NH3 photodissociation forming OH, O, NH2 and NH are also evaluated and lead to radiation-field-dependent branching ratios.Comment: Corrected some inconsistent table/figure data. Significant change: Zn photoionisation rate corrected. Accepted for publication by A&

    Astrochemical confirmation of the rapid evolution of massive YSOs and explanation for the inferred ages of hot cores

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    Aims. To understand the roles of infall and protostellar evolution on the envelopes of massive young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods. The chemical evolution of gas and dust is traced, including infall and realistic source evolution. The temperatures are determined self-consistently. Both ad/desorption of ices using recent laboratory temperature-programmed-desorption measurements are included. Results. The observed water abundance jump near 100 K is reproduced by an evaporation front which moves outward as the luminosity increases. Ion-molecule reactions produce water below 100 K. The age of the source is constrained to t \~ 8 +/- 4 x 10^4 yrs since YSO formation. It is shown that the chemical age-dating of hot cores at ~ few x 10^3 - 10^4 yr and the disappearance of hot cores on a timescale of ~ 10^5 yr is a natural consequence of infall in a dynamic envelope and protostellar evolution. Dynamical structures of ~ 350AU such as disks should contain most of the complex second generation species. The assumed order of desorption kinetics does not affect these results.Comment: Accepted by A&A Letters; 4 pages, 5 figure

    Dense and warm molecular gas in the envelopes and outflows of southern low-mass protostars

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    Observations of dense molecular gas lie at the basis of our understanding of the density and temperature structure of protostellar envelopes and molecular outflows. We aim to characterize the properties of the protostellar envelope, molecular outflow and surrounding cloud, through observations of high excitation molecular lines within a sample of 16 southern sources presumed to be embedded YSOs. Observations of submillimeter lines of CO, HCO+ and their isotopologues, both single spectra and small maps were taken with the FLASH and APEX-2a instruments mounted on APEX to trace the gas around the sources. The HARP-B instrument on the JCMT was used to map IRAS 15398-3359 in these lines. HCO+ mapping probes the presence of dense centrally condensed gas, a characteristic of protostellar envelopes. The rare isotopologues C18O and H13CO+ are also included to determine the optical depth, column density, and source velocity. The combination of multiple CO transitions, such as 3-2, 4-3 and 7-6, allows to constrain outflow properties, in particular the temperature. Archival submillimeter continuum data are used to determine envelope masses. Eleven of the sixteen sources have associated warm and/or dense quiescent as characteristic of protostellar envelopes, or an associated outflow. Using the strength and degree of concentration of the HCO+ 4-3 and CO 4-3 lines as a diagnostic, five sources classified as Class I based on their spectral energy distributions are found not to be embedded YSOs. The C18O 3-2 lines show that for none of the sources, foreground cloud layers are present. Strong molecular outflows are found around six sources, .. (continued in paper)Comment: Accepted by A&A, 13 figure

    Detection of interstellar H_2D^+ emission

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    We report the detection of the 1_{10}-1_{11} ground state transition of ortho-H_2D^+ at 372.421 GHz in emission from the young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. Detailed excitation models with a power-law temperature and density structure yield a beam-averaged H_2D^+ abundance of 3 x 10^{-12} with an uncertainty of a factor of two. The line was not detected toward W 33A, GL 2591, and NGC 2264 IRS, in the latter source at a level which is 3-8 times lower than previous observations. The H_2D^+ data provide direct evidence in support of low-temperature chemical models in which H_2D^+ is enhanced by the reaction of H_3^+ and HD. The H_2D^+ enhancement toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A is also reflected in the high DCO^+/HCO^+ abundance ratio. Simultaneous observations of the N_2H^+ 4-3 line show that its abundance is about 50-100 times lower in NGC 1333 IRAS 4A than in the other sources, suggesting significant depletion of N_2. The N_2H^+ data provide independent lower limits on the H_3^+ abundance which are consistent with the abundances derived from H_2D^+. The corresponding limits on the H_3^+$ column density agree with recent near-infrared absorption measurements of H_3^+ toward W 33A and GL 2591.Comment: Standard AAS LaTeX format (15 pages + 2 figures

    On the origin of H_2CO abundance enhancements in low-mass protostars

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    High angular resolution H_2CO 218 GHz line observations have been carried out toward the low-mass protostars IRAS 16293-2422 and L1448-C using the Owens Valley Millimeter Array at ~2" resolution. Simultaneous 1.37 mm continuum data reveal extended emission which is compared with that predicted by model envelopes constrained from single-dish data. For L1448-C the model density structure works well down to the 400 AU scale to which the interferometer is sensitive. For IRAS 16293-2422 , a known proto-binary object, the interferometer observations indicate that the binary has cleared much of the material in the inner part of the envelope, out to the binary separation of ~800 AU. For both sources there is excess unresolved compact emission centered on the sources, most likely due to accretion disks ≾200 AU in size with masses of ≳0.02 M_☉ (L1448-C) and ≳0.1 M_☉ (IRAS 16293-2422). The H_2CO data for both sources are dominated by emission from gas close to the positions of the continuum peaks. The morphology and velocity structure of the H_2CO array data have been used to investigate whether the abundance enhancements inferred from single-dish modelling are due to thermal evaporation of ices or due to liberation of the ice mantles by shocks in the inner envelope. For IRAS 16293-2422 the H_2CO interferometer observations indicate the presence of rotation roughly perpendicular to the large scale CO outflow. The H_2CO distribution differs from that of C^(18)O, with C^(18)O emission peaking near MM1 and H_2CO stronger near MM2. For L1448-C, the region of enhanced H_2CO emission extends over a much larger scale >1" than the radius of 50-100 K (0."6-0".15) where thermal evaporation can occur. The red-blue asymmetry of the emission is consistent with the outflow; however the velocities are significantly lower. The H_2CO 3_(22)-2_(21)/3_(03)-2_(02) flux ratio derived from the interferometer data is significantly higher than that found from single-dish observations for both objects, suggesting that the compact emission arises from warmer gas. Detailed radiative transfer modeling shows, however, that the ratio is affected by abundance gradients and optical depth in the 3_(03)-2_(02) line. It is concluded that a constant H_2CO abundance throughout the envelope cannot fit the interferometer data of the two H_2CO lines simultaneously on the longest and shortest baselines. A scenario in which the H_2CO abundance drops in the cold dense part of the envelope where CO is frozen out but is undepleted in the outermost region provides good fits to the single-dish and interferometer data on short baselines for both sources. Emission on the longer baselines is best reproduced if the H_2CO abundance is increased by about an order of magnitude from ~ 10^(-10) to ~ 10^(-9) in the inner parts of the envelope due to thermal evaporation when the temperature exceeds ~50 K. The presence of additional H_2CO abundance jumps in the innermost hot core region or in the disk cannot be firmly established, however, with the present sensitivity and resolution. Other scenarios, including weak outflow-envelope interactions and photon heating of the envelope, are discussed and predictions for future generation interferometers are presented, illustrating their potential in distinguishing these competing scenarios
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