6 research outputs found

    IBD risk loci are enriched in multigenic regulatory modules encompassing putative causative genes.

    Get PDF
    GWAS have identified >200 risk loci for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The majority of disease associations are known to be driven by regulatory variants. To identify the putative causative genes that are perturbed by these variants, we generate a large transcriptome data set (nine disease-relevant cell types) and identify 23,650 cis-eQTL. We show that these are determined by ∼9720 regulatory modules, of which ∼3000 operate in multiple tissues and ∼970 on multiple genes. We identify regulatory modules that drive the disease association for 63 of the 200 risk loci, and show that these are enriched in multigenic modules. Based on these analyses, we resequence 45 of the corresponding 100 candidate genes in 6600 Crohn disease (CD) cases and 5500 controls, and show with burden tests that they include likely causative genes. Our analyses indicate that ≥10-fold larger sample sizes will be required to demonstrate the causality of individual genes using this approach

    Grade retention, ability tracking, and selection in education

    No full text
    This thesis explores the consequences of grade retention, the interaction of school-starting-age rules and early ability tracking, and of a change of the ability tracking selection process. The first essay of this thesis shows that grade retention has limited educational and labor-market merits. Those that retain do not attain more tertiary education but do graduate at a later date. This delay in labor-market entry leads to a loss of earnings due to a loss of labor-market experience. The second essay shows that early differences in ability track attendance between students, created through school-starting-age requirements, do not have to be detrimental to long-term outcomes. If educational systems are flexible, students can move up, and eliminate early differences. The last essay shows that relying on teacher recommendations instead of exit test scores decreases the gap in high-track attendance between students from low- and high-income families

    Grade retention, ability tracking, and selection in education

    No full text
    This thesis explores the consequences of grade retention, the interaction of school-starting-age rules and early ability tracking, and of a change of the ability tracking selection process. The first essay of this thesis shows that grade retention has limited educational and labor-market merits. Those that retain do not attain more tertiary education but do graduate at a later date. This delay in labor-market entry leads to a loss of earnings due to a loss of labor-market experience. The second essay shows that early differences in ability track attendance between students, created through school-starting-age requirements, do not have to be detrimental to long-term outcomes. If educational systems are flexible, students can move up, and eliminate early differences. The last essay shows that relying on teacher recommendations instead of exit test scores decreases the gap in high-track attendance between students from low- and high-income families
    corecore