1,235 research outputs found

    Cultural Idiosyncrasies and Preservation Challenges in the Indo-Portuguese Catholic Religious Architecture of Goa (India)

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    The Goan Catholic religious architecture is undoubtedly a unique and valuable transcultural heritage, which needs to be understood and preserved. For four and a half centuries, during the Portuguese administration, this heritage was conserved following Western premises, moderated by the local influences. With the integration of Goa into India, the preservation became under the Indian cultural influence, and this fact has brought some changes. Therefore, issues and idiosyncrasies concerning transculturality, the meaning of heritage and authenticity among different cultures (in this case, Portuguese culture and Indian cultures) will be discussed, including the debate on the heritage preservation in Goa.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    "Tupi or not Tupi" versus "Casa Portuguesa": Friction between L√ļcio Costa and Raul Lino in Auriverde Jornada (or the debate that might have taken place on Identity and Heritage in Architecture)

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    In the book Auriverde Jornada, Raul Lino recounts his meeting with L√ļcio Costa in Rio de Janeiro in 1935. That brief shared moment, their personal convictions in relation to architecture and the affinities and divergences that unite/distance them serve as the point of departure for a comparative analysis of their professional journey in the sphere of heritage safeguarding. In fact, as well as landmarks in the architectural landscape of their respective countries, Lino and Costa were also towering figures in the heritage pathway, taking different directions but also sometimes moving in parallel. The animated debate between Lino and Costa on the spirit of modern architecture functions as a catalyst for the present essay, which encompasses a wider problematic: the construction of identity in architecture, the idiosyncrasies of the Modern Movement and the patrimonialization of architecture in Portugal and Brazil, as well as the relations, influences and repercussions that existed in this area between both countries between 1930 and 1960.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Why the Preservation of Transcultural Heritage?

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    In an era of generalized globalization, which leads to increased hybridity in practically all levels of our existence, cultural barriers also tend to shade off substantially. This has motivated a growing feeling of protection regarding several singular cultural heritage elements that are considered to be unique identity components of the societies and communities that created them, and of irreplaceable value. However, this globalization that began centuries ago through commercial, technological, cultural, political and war-related exchanges between different peoples, which have been gradually increasing in intensity to the present day, turned out to be itself the originator of a heritage that has been created precisely in the context of contacts between different cultures. This new transcultural heritage (or, in some way, hybrid heritage) presents a whole set of different complexities that, to a greater or lesser extent, hinders its safeguard and preservation for future generations.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    On the Trail of Baltazar Castro, a Portuguese Restorer in India

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    In 1950 the architect Baltazar Castro arrived to the Portuguese Estado da √ćndia, commissioned to co-ordinate restorations to its monuments. Baltazar Castro was the former director of the Service of National Monuments from the DGEMN (the Portuguese state entity responsible for public works). The Portuguese dictatorial regime of that period used the ‚Äėgreat national Past‚Äô as a propagandistic instrument and, therefore, the architectural monuments, to be easily recognized and identified, had to recover their ‚Äėoriginal pure shape‚Äô by reintegrating and removing from them ‚Äėspurious additions‚Äô obstructing or deforming their perception. This kind of patrimonial intervention began to be criticized, especially from the end of the 1940s onwards, coinciding with Baltazar Castro‚Äôs retirement from the DGEMN and his commission into the Estado da √ćndia. This article focuses on Baltazar Castro‚Äôs interventions in India, reflecting his previous practice in Portugal: in some works, an idealized image was intended to be recreated for the monuments, causing their adulteration by acquiring an image that they never had before. His action had a huge impact on the architectural heritage of Old Goa, some of it classified today as World Heritage by UNESCO.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Obnova srednjeveŇ°kih utrdb v ńćasu portugalskega diktatorskega reŇĺima (1926‚Äď1974)

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    In the Modern Age, most fortified manor houses in Portugal fell into ruin, due to the lack of dignified living conditions, the obsolescence of defensive structures, and the decline decay of aristocratic families. However, between 1933 and 1974, many ruined fortified manor houses were restored by the Portuguese dictatorial regime. The nationalist dictatorship of Estado Novo used heritage as an ideological instrument of propaganda. This proposal aims to analyse the context of the ideological restoration of medieval fortified manor houses by the dictatorial regime, addressing symbolisms, restoration actions, and the contextualisation of fortified manor houses in Portugal by focusing on particular case studies.V novem veku je vecŐĆina srednjevesŐĆkih gradov na Portugalskem propadla zaradi premajhnega udobja, zastarelosti obrambnih struktur in izumiranja plemisŐĆkih druzŐĆin. V letih od 1933‚Äď 1974 je portugalski diktatorski rezŐĆim sŐĆtevilne porusŐĆene gradove obnovil. NacionalisticŐĆna diktatura Estado Novo je kulturno dedisŐĆcŐĆino uporabljala kot ideolosŐĆki in- strument propagande. Namen cŐĆlanka je analizirati kontekst ideolosŐĆke obnove srednjevesŐĆkih gradov v cŐĆasu diktatorskega rezŐĆima, pri cŐĆemer so obravnavani simbolika, ukrepi pri obnovah in kontekstualizacija gradov na Portugalskem s poudarkom na sŐĆtudijah posameznih primero

    ¬ęReinstalling the Old City of Goa as an Eternal Light of Portuguese Spirituality¬Ľ: The Plan for the Reintegration of Old Goa at the End of the Colonial Period

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    On the eve of the Indian invasion of the Portuguese Estado da √ćndia, or Portuguese India, a commission led by Ismael Gracias, created an idealized plan for the reintegration of Old Goa, the former capital of the Portuguese Eastern Empire. For the Portuguese dictatorial regime, the ambient of crisis caused by threats of an imminent Indian invasion generated a need to justify the Portuguese permanence in India. This would be accomplished by showing the world the secular history of the Portuguese presence in India, visible symbolically in the great architectural monuments of Old Goa. The Goan monuments of Portuguese influence thus became a powerful and ideological instrument of propaganda, validating the heritage activity on them. This article will focus on the intended plan of the Gracias commission, as well as its repercussions within the technical staff and the political leaders both in Portugal and in the Estado da √ćndia. Based on research of primary Portuguese sources, this article contributes to the little-studied and relatively unknown field of the preservation of the architectural heritage in the Portuguese Estado da √ćndia, and briefly compares this case with similar ones from the colonial period.Nas v√©speras da invas√£o Indiana do Estado da √ćndia portuguesa, ou √ćndia Portuguesa, foi idealizado um plano para a reintegra√ß√£o de Velha Goa, a antiga capital do Imp√©rio Portugu√™s do Oriente, por uma comiss√£o liderada por Ismael Gracias. Para o regime ditatorial portugu√™s, o ambiente de crise, originado por amea√ßas de uma eminente invas√£o indiana, gerou a necessidade de justificar a perman√™ncia portuguesa na √ćndia. Tal desiderato seria alcan√ßado mostrando ao mundo a secular hist√≥ria da presen√ßa portuguesa na √ćndia, simbolicamente vis√≠vel na grandiosa arquitectura dos monumentos de Velha Goa. Os monumentos goeses com influ√™ncia portuguesa tornaram-se assim poderosos instrumentos ideol√≥gicos de propaganda, validando as ac√ß√Ķes patrimoniais realizadas sobre eles. Este artigo pretende analisar o plano concebido pela comiss√£o de Ismael Gracias, bem como as suas repercuss√Ķes nos corpos t√©cnicos e nas lideran√ßas pol√≠ticas de Portugal e do Estado da √ćndia. Baseando-se numa pesquisa em fontes prim√°rias portuguesas, o artigo contribui para o conhecimento num campo ainda pouco estudado e relativamente desconhecido, o da preserva√ß√£o do patrim√≥nio arquitect√≥nico no Estado da √ćndia portuguesa, comparando este caso com outros similares do per√≠odo colonial.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    From Rome to Goa : Domes in Goan Catholic Architecture

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    Proof-of-concept of a single-point Time-of-Flight LiDAR system and guidelines towards integrated high-accuracy timing, advanced polarization sensing and scanning with a MEMS micromirror

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    Disserta√ß√£o de mestrado integrado em Engenharia F√≠sica (√°rea de especializa√ß√£o em Dispositivos, Microssistemas e Nanotecnologias)The core focus of the work reported herein is the fulfillment of a functional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor to validate the direct Time-of-Flight (ToF) ranging concept and the acquisition of critical knowledge regarding pivotal aspects jeopardizing the sensor‚Äôs performance, for forthcoming improvements aiming a realistic sensor targeted towards automotive applications. Hereupon, the ToF LiDAR system is implemented through an architecture encompassing both optical and electronical functions and is subsequently characterized under a sequence of test procedures usually applied in benchmarking of LiDAR sensors. The design employs a hybrid edge-emitting laser diode (pulsed at 6kHz, 46ns temporal FWHM, 7ns rise-time; 919nm wavelength with 5nm FWHM), a PIN photodiode to detect the back-reflected radiation, a transamplification stage and two Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs), with leading-edge discrimination electronics to mark the transit time between emission and detection events. Furthermore, a flexible modular design is adopted using two separate Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), comprising the transmitter (TX) and the receiver (RX), i.e. detection and signal processing. The overall output beam divergence is 0.4¬ļ√ó1¬ļ and an optical peak power of 60W (87% overall throughput) is realized. The sensor is tested indoors from 0.56 to 4.42 meters, and the distance is directly estimated from the pulses transit time. The precision within these working distances ranges from 4cm to 7cm, reflected in a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) between 12dB and 18dB. The design requires a calibration procedure to correct systematic errors in the range measurements, induced by two sources: the timing offset due to architecture-inherent differences in the optoelectronic paths and a supplementary bias resulting from the design, which renders an intensity dependence and is denoted time-walk. The calibrated system achieves a mean accuracy of 1cm. Two distinct target materials are used for characterization and performance evaluation: a metallic automotive paint and a diffuse material. This selection is representative of two extremes of actual LiDAR applications. The optical and electronic characterization is thoroughly detailed, including the recognition of a good agreement between empirical observations and simulations in ZEMAX, for optical design, and in a SPICE software, for the electrical subsystem. The foremost meaningful limitation of the implemented design is identified as an outcome of the leading-edge discrimination. A proposal for a Constant Fraction Discriminator addressing sub-millimetric accuracy is provided to replace the previous signal processing element. This modification is mandatory to virtually eliminate the aforementioned systematic bias in range sensing due to the intensity dependency. A further crucial addition is a scanning mechanism to supply the required Field-of-View (FOV) for automotive usage. The opto-electromechanical guidelines to interface a MEMS micromirror scanner, achieving a 46¬ļ√ó17¬ļ FOV, with the LiDAR sensor are furnished. Ultimately, a proof-of-principle to the use of polarization in material classification for advanced processing is carried out, aiming to complement the ToF measurements. The original design is modified to include a variable wave retarder, allowing the simultaneous detection of orthogonal linear polarization states using a single detector. The material classification with polarization sensing is tested with the previously referred materials culminating in an 87% and 11% degree of linear polarization retention from the metallic paint and the diffuse material, respectively, computed by Stokes parameters calculus. The procedure was independently validated under the same conditions with a micro-polarizer camera (92% and 13% polarization retention).O intuito primordial do trabalho reportado no presente documento √© o desenvolvimento de um sensor LiDAR funcional, que permita validar o conceito de medi√ß√£o direta do tempo de voo de pulsos √≥ticos para a estimativa de dist√Ęncia, e a aquisi√ß√£o de conhecimento cr√≠tico respeitante a aspetos fundamentais que prejudicam a performance do sensor, ambicionando melhorias futuras para um sensor endere√ßado para aplica√ß√Ķes autom√≥veis. Destarte, o sistema LiDAR √© implementado atrav√©s de uma arquitetura que engloba tanto fun√ß√Ķes √≥ticas como eletr√≥nicas, sendo posteriormente caracterizado atrav√©s de uma sequ√™ncia de testes experimentais comumente aplic√°veis em benchmarking de sensores LiDAR. O design tira partido de um d√≠odo de laser h√≠brido (pulsado a 6kHz, largura temporal de 46ns; comprimento de onda de pico de 919nm e largura espetral de 5nm), um fotod√≠odo PIN para detetar a radia√ß√£o refletida, um andar de transamplifica√ß√£o e dois conversores tempo-digital, com discrimina√ß√£o temporal com threshold constante para marcar o tempo de tr√Ęnsito entre emiss√£o e rece√ß√£o. Ademais, um design modular flex√≠vel √© adotado atrav√©s de duas PCBs independentes, compondo o transmissor e o recetor (dete√ß√£o e processamento de sinal). A diverg√™ncia global do feixe emitido para o ambiente circundante √© 0.4¬ļ√ó1¬ļ, apresentando uma pot√™ncia √≥tica de pico de 60W (efici√™ncia de 87% na transmiss√£o). O sensor √© testado em ambiente fechado, entre 0.56 e 4.42 metros. A precis√£o dentro das dist√Ęncias de trabalho varia entre 4cm e 7cm, o que se reflete numa raz√£o sinal-ru√≠do entre 12dB e 18dB. O design requer calibra√ß√£o para corrigir erros sistem√°ticos nas dist√Ęncias adquiridas devido a duas fontes: o desvio no ToF devido a diferen√ßas nos percursos optoeletr√≥nicos, inerentes √† arquitetura, e uma depend√™ncia adicional da intensidade do sinal refletido, induzida pela t√©cnica de discrimina√ß√£o implementada e denotada time-walk. A exatid√£o do sistema p√≥s-calibra√ß√£o perfaz um valor m√©dio de 1cm. Dois alvos distintos s√£o utilizados durante a fase de carateriza√ß√£o e avalia√ß√£o performativa: uma tinta met√°lica aplicada em revestimentos de autom√≥veis e um material difusor. Esta sele√ß√£o √© representativa de dois cen√°rios extremos em aplica√ß√Ķes reais do LiDAR. A carateriza√ß√£o dos subsistemas √≥tico e eletr√≥nico √© minuciosamente detalhada, incluindo a constata√ß√£o de uma boa concord√Ęncia entre observa√ß√Ķes emp√≠ricas e simula√ß√Ķes √≥ticas em ZEMAX e el√©tricas num software SPICE. O principal elemento limitante do design implementado √© identificado como sendo a t√©cnica de discrimina√ß√£o adotada. Por conseguinte, √© proposta a substitui√ß√£o do anterior bloco por uma t√©cnica de discrimina√ß√£o a uma fra√ß√£o constante do pulso de retorno, com exatid√Ķes da ordem sub-milim√©trica. Esta modifica√ß√£o √© imperativa para eliminar o offset sistem√°tico nas medidas de dist√Ęncia, decorrente da depend√™ncia da intensidade do sinal. Uma outra inclus√£o de extrema relev√Ęncia √© um mecanismo de varrimento que assegura o cumprimento dos requisitos de campo de vis√£o para aplica√ß√Ķes autom√≥veis. As diretrizes para a integra√ß√£o de um micro-espelho no sensor concebido s√£o providenciadas, permitindo atingir um campo de vis√£o de 46¬ļ√ó17¬ļ. Conclusivamente, √© feita uma prova de princ√≠pio para a utiliza√ß√£o da polariza√ß√£o como complemento das medi√ß√Ķes do tempo de voo, de modo a suportar a classifica√ß√£o de materiais em processamento avan√ßado. A arquitetura original √© modificada para incluir uma l√Ęmina de atraso vari√°vel, permitindo a dete√ß√£o de estados de polariza√ß√£o ortogonais com um √ļnico fotodetetor. A classifica√ß√£o de materiais atrav√©s da aferi√ß√£o do estado de polariza√ß√£o da luz refletida √© testada para os materiais supramencionados, culminando numa reten√ß√£o de polariza√ß√£o de 87% (tinta met√°lica) e 11% (difusor), calculados atrav√©s dos par√Ęmetros de Stokes. O procedimento √© independentemente validado com uma c√Ęmara polarim√©trica nas mesmas condi√ß√Ķes (reten√ß√£o de 92% e 13%)

    Preserving Transcultural Heritage: Your Way or My Way?

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    In an era of generalized globalization, which leads to increased hybridity in practically all levels of our existence, cultural barriers also tend to shade off substantially. This has motivated a growing feeling of protection regarding several singular cultural heritage elements that are considered to be unique identity components of the societies and communities that created them, and of irreplaceable value. However, this globalization that began centuries ago through commercial, technological, cultural, political and war-related exchanges between different peoples, which have been gradually increasing in intensity to the present day, turned out to be itself the originator of a heritage that has been created precisely in the context of contacts between different cultures. This new transcultural heritage (or, in some way, hybrid heritage) presents a whole set of different complexities that, to a greater or lesser extent, hinders its safeguard and preservation for future generations.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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