1,988 research outputs found

    Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

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    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks

    Exploração de pequenos ruminantes no estado do Ceará. Uma visão do capital, renda e custo

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    This study was made in order to describe capital arrangements on some surveyed farms engaged in goat, sheep and cattle raising and crop culture, in order to determine relative costs and income return from these activities. Total capital was distributed among livestock, land improvement and buildings and facilities. A small portion of capital was assigned to equipment. Cattle raising activity provided the greatest in come exclusively from sales, followed by crop, goat and sheep income. A substantial portion of small ruminant products was used for personal consumption, while some crop products were used to pay share croppers. A high percentage of variable costs involved with cattle raising activities were allocated for feed and labor. Variable costs related to crops were expended with sharecroppers. Goat and sheep were responsible for 42% and 32%, respectively, of the total farm income. However, their contribution to total costs was very high, 54% and 38%, respectively. Goat and sheep husbandry contributed with 26% to total gross margin income as compared to only 8% of the total variable costs. Thus, small ruminant rearing activities showed a gross margin income per unit of cost four times higher than cattle and crop activities.Esta pesquisa descreve a estrutura do capital numa amostra de fazendas que incluíam atividades com caprinos, ovinos, bovinos e culturas, e determinou os custos relativos e os retornos destas atividades. O montante de capital foi distribuído na pecuária, melhoramento da terra, construções e instalações. Pouco capital foi destinado à maquinaria. A atividade com bovinos gerou a maior renda exclusivamente das vendas, seguido pelas culturas e pelos pequenos ruminantes, os quais tiveram uma substancial parcela de seus produtos utilizadas para auto-sustento. Parte das culturas foi também utilizada para pagamento de meeiros. Uma grande proporção dos custos variáveis da atividade com bovinos deveu-se ao dispêndio com alimentação e mão-de-obra. Os custos variáveis associados com a atividade de culturas referiram-se ao item pagamento de meeiros na forma de gêneros. A atividade com caprinos e ovinos foi responsável por uma pequena parcela no total dos custos variáveis. As margens brutas de renda, das atividades com bovinos e culturas foram responsáveis por 42 e 32% no total da renda gerada; entretanto, seus respectivos custos foram relativamente mais elevados 54% e 38%, respectivamente. A atividade com caprinos e ovinos foi responsável por 26% do total de margem bruta de renda gerada, contra somente 8% de sua participação no total dos custos variáveis. Essa atividade gerou cerca de quatro vezes mais margem bruta por unidade de custo variável do que as atividades com bovinos e culturas

    Automated Data Quality Assessment of Marine Sensors

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    The automated collection of data (e.g., through sensor networks) has led to a massive increase in the quantity of environmental and other data available. The sheer quantity of data and growing need for real-time ingestion of sensor data (e.g., alerts and forecasts from physical models) means that automated Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) is necessary to ensure that the data collected is fit for purpose. Current automated QA/QC approaches provide assessments based upon hard classifications of the gathered data; often as a binary decision of good or bad data that fails to quantify our confidence in the data for use in different applications. We propose a novel framework for automated data quality assessments that uses Fuzzy Logic to provide a continuous scale of data quality. This continuous quality scale is then used to compute error bars upon the data, which quantify the data uncertainty and provide a more meaningful measure of the data’s fitness for purpose in a particular application compared with hard quality classifications. The design principles of the framework are presented and enable both data statistics and expert knowledge to be incorporated into the uncertainty assessment. We have implemented and tested the framework upon a real time platform of temperature and conductivity sensors that have been deployed to monitor the Derwent Estuary in Hobart, Australia. Results indicate that the error bars generated from the Fuzzy QA/QC implementation are in good agreement with the error bars manually encoded by a domain expert

    What does Life-Cycle Assessment of agricultural products need for more meaningful inclusion of biodiversity?

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    peer-reviewedDecision‐makers increasingly use life‐cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool to measure the environmental sustainability of products. LCA is of particular importance in globalized agricultural supply chains, which have environmental effects in multiple and spatially dispersed locations. Incorporation of impacts on biodiversity that arise from agricultural production systems into environmental assessment methods is an emerging area of work in LCA, and current approaches have limitations, including the need for (i) improved assessment of impacts to biodiversity associated with agricultural production, (ii) inclusion of new biodiversity indicators (e.g. conservation value, functional diversity, ecosystem services) and (iii) inclusion of previously unaccounted modelling variables that go beyond land‐use impacts (e.g. climate change, water and soil quality). Synthesis and applications. Ecological models and understanding can contribute to address the limitations of current life‐cycle assessment (LCA) methods in agricultural production systems and to make them more ecologically relevant. This will be necessary to ensure that biodiversity is not neglected in decision‐making that relies on LCA

    City Know-How

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    Human health and planetary health are influenced by city lifestyles, city leadership, and city development. For both, worrying trends are leading to increasing concern and it is imperative that human health and environmental impacts become core foci in urban policy. Changing trajectory will require concerted action; the journal Cities & Health is dedicated to supporting the flow of knowledge, in all directions, to help make this happen. We wish to foster communication between researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, communities, and decision-makers in cities. This is the purpose of the City Know-how section of the journal. ‘Research for city practice’ disseminates lessons from research by explaining key messages for city leaders, communities, and the professions involved in city policy and practice. ‘City shorts’ provide glimpses of what is being attempted or achieved ‘on the ground’ and ’case studies’ are where you will find evaluations of interventions. Last, ‘Commentary and debate’ extends conversations we are having to develop and mobilize much needed new thinking. Join in these conversations. In order to strengthen the community of interest, we would like to include many and varied voices, including those from younger practitioners and researchers who are supporting health and health equity in everyday urban lives

    In Silico Ascription of Gene Expression Differences to Tumor and Stromal Cells in a Model to Study Impact on Breast Cancer Outcome

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    Breast tumors consist of several different tissue components. Despite the heterogeneity, most gene expression analyses have traditionally been performed without prior microdissection of the tissue sample. Thus, the gene expression profiles obtained reflect the mRNA contribution from the various tissue components. We utilized histopathological estimations of area fractions of tumor and stromal tissue components in 198 fresh-frozen breast tumor tissue samples for a cell type-associated gene expression analysis associated with distant metastasis. Sets of differentially expressed gene-probes were identified in tumors from patients who developed distant metastasis compared with those who did not, by weighing the contribution from each tumor with the relative content of stromal and tumor epithelial cells in their individual tumor specimen. The analyses were performed under various assumptions of mRNA transcription level from tumor epithelial cells compared with stromal cells. A set of 30 differentially expressed gene-probes was ascribed solely to carcinoma cells. Furthermore, two sets of 38 and five differentially expressed gene-probes were mostly associated to tumor epithelial and stromal cells, respectively. Finally, a set of 26 differentially expressed gene-probes was identified independently of cell type focus. The differentially expressed genes were validated in independent gene expression data from a set of laser capture microdissected invasive ductal carcinomas. We present a method for identifying and ascribing differentially expressed genes to tumor epithelial and/or stromal cells, by utilizing pathologic information and weighted t-statistics. Although a transcriptional contribution from the stromal cell fraction is detectable in microarray experiments performed on bulk tumor, the gene expression differences between the distant metastasis and no distant metastasis group were mostly ascribed to the tumor epithelial cells of the primary breast tumors. However, the gene PIP5K2A was found significantly elevated in stroma cells in distant metastasis group, compared to stroma in no distant metastasis group. These findings were confirmed in gene expression data from the representative compartments from microdissected breast tissue. The method described was also found to be robust to different histopathological procedures

    Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest : Why inventory is a vital science

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    Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurqui de Moravia, San Jose Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurqui), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America. Specimens were collected with two Malaise traps running continuously and with a wide array of supplementary collecting methods for three days of each month. All morphospecies from all 73 families recorded were fully curated by technicians before submission to an international team of 59 taxonomic experts for identification. Overall, a Malaise trap on the forest edge captured 1,988 species or 51% of all collected dipteran taxa (other than of Phoridae, subsampled only from this and one other Malaise trap). A Malaise trap in the forest sampled 906 species. Of other sampling methods, the combination of four other Malaise traps and an intercept trap, aerial/hand collecting, 10 emergence traps, and four CDC light traps added the greatest number of species to our inventory. This complement of sampling methods was an effective combination for retrieving substantial numbers of species of Diptera. Comparison of select sampling methods (considering 3,487 species of non-phorid Diptera) provided further details regarding how many species were sampled by various methods. Comparison of species numbers from each of two permanent Malaise traps from Zurqui with those of single Malaise traps at each of Tapanti and Las Alturas, 40 and 180 km distant from Zurqui respectively, suggested significant species turnover. Comparison of the greater number of species collected in all traps from Zurqui did not markedly change the degree of similarity between the three sites, although the actual number of species shared did increase. Comparisons of the total number of named and unnamed species of Diptera from four hectares at Zurqui is equivalent to 51% of all flies named from Central America, greater than all the named fly fauna of Colombia, equivalent to 14% of named Neotropical species and equal to about 2.7% of all named Diptera worldwide. Clearly the number of species of Diptera in tropical regions has been severely underestimated and the actual number may surpass the number of species of Coleoptera. Various published extrapolations from limited data to estimate total numbers of species of larger taxonomic categories (e.g., Hexapoda, Arthropoda, Eukaryota, etc.) are highly questionable, and certainly will remain uncertain until we have more exhaustive surveys of all and diverse taxa (like Diptera) from multiple tropical sites. Morphological characterization of species in inventories provides identifications placed in the context of taxonomy, phylogeny, form, and ecology. DNA barcoding species is a valuable tool to estimate species numbers but used alone fails to provide a broader context for the species identified.Peer reviewe

    Possible interpretations of the joint observations of UHECR arrival directions using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð¥with constraintsð ð 𥠥 ðandð´ð¥ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis
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