42 research outputs found

    Nanoinformatics: developing new computing applications for nanomedicine

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    Nanoinformatics has recently emerged to address the need of computing applications at the nano level. In this regard, the authors have participated in various initiatives to identify its concepts, foundations and challenges. While nanomaterials open up the possibility for developing new devices in many industrial and scientific areas, they also offer breakthrough perspectives for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this paper, we analyze the different aspects of nanoinformatics and suggest five research topics to help catalyze new research and development in the area, particularly focused on nanomedicine. We also encompass the use of informatics to further the biological and clinical applications of basic research in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and the related concept of an extended ?nanotype? to coalesce information related to nanoparticles. We suggest how nanoinformatics could accelerate developments in nanomedicine, similarly to what happened with the Human Genome and other -omics projects, on issues like exchanging modeling and simulation methods and tools, linking toxicity information to clinical and personal databases or developing new approaches for scientific ontologies, among many others

    Selective Induction of DNA Repair Pathways in Human B Cells Activated by CD4+ T Cells

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    Greater than 75% of all hematologic malignancies derive from germinal center (GC) or post-GC B cells, suggesting that the GC reaction predisposes B cells to tumorigenesis. Because GC B cells acquire expression of the highly mutagenic enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), GC B cells may require additional DNA repair capacity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether normal human B cells acquire enhanced expression of DNA repair factors upon AID induction. We first demonstrated that several DNA mismatch repair, homologous recombination, base excision repair, and ATR signaling genes were overexpressed in GC B cells relative to naïve and memory B cells, reflecting activation of a process we have termed somatic hyperrepair (SHR). Using an in vitro system, we next characterized activation signals required to induce AID expression and SHR. Although AID expression was induced by a variety of polyclonal activators, SHR induction strictly required signals provided by contact with activated CD4+ T cells, and B cells activated in this manner displayed reduced levels of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We further show the induction of SHR is independent of AID expression, as GC B cells from AID -/- mice retained heightened expression of SHR proteins. In consideration of the critical role that CD4+ T cells play in inducing the SHR process, our data suggest a novel role for CD4+ T cells in the tumor suppression of GC/post-GC B cells

    Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Stem Cell Therapy (Cx601) for Complex Perianal Fistulas in Patients With Crohn's Disease

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    Background & Aims: Therapies for perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease are often ineffective in producing long-term healing. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of a single local administration of allogeneic expanded adipose-derived stem cells (Cx601) in patients with Crohn's disease and perianal fistulas. Methods: We performed a double-blind study at 49 hospitals in Europe and Israel, comprising 212 patients with Crohn's disease and treatment-refractory, draining, complex perianal fistulas. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given a single local injection of 120 million Cx601 cells or placebo (control), in addition to the standard of care. Efficacy endpoints evaluated in the modified intention-to-treat population (randomly assigned, treated, and with 1 or more post-baseline efficacy assessment) at week 52 included combined remission (closure of all treated external openings draining at baseline with absence of collections >2 cm, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging) and clinical remission (absence of draining fistulas). Results: The study's primary endpoint, at week 24, was previously reported (combined remission in 51.5% of patients given Cx601 vs 35.6% of controls, for a difference of 15.8 percentage points; 97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–31.2; P =.021). At week 52, a significantly greater proportion of patients given Cx601 achieved combined remission (56.3%) vs controls (38.6%) (a difference of 17.7 percentage points; 95% CI 4.2–31.2; P =.010), and clinical remission (59.2% vs 41.6% of controls, for a difference of 17.6 percentage points; 95% CI 4.1–31.1; P =.013). Safety was maintained throughout week 52; adverse events occurred in 76.7% of patients in the Cx601 group and 72.5% of patients in the control group. Conclusion: In a phase 3 trial of patients with Crohn's disease and treatment-refractory complex perianal fistulas, we found Cx601 to be safe and effective in closing external openings, compared with placebo, after 1 year. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01541579