424 research outputs found

    Heritability of physical activity traits in Brazilian families: the Baependi Heart Study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>It is commonly recognized that physical activity has familial aggregation; however, the genetic influences on physical activity phenotypes are not well characterized. This study aimed to (1) estimate the heritability of physical activity traits in Brazilian families; and (2) investigate whether genetic and environmental variance components contribute differently to the expression of these phenotypes in males and females.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The sample that constitutes the Baependi Heart Study is comprised of 1,693 individuals in 95 Brazilian families. The phenotypes were self-reported in a questionnaire based on the WHO-MONICA instrument. Variance component approaches, implemented in the SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) computer package, were applied to estimate the heritability and to evaluate the heterogeneity of variance components by gender on the studied phenotypes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The heritability estimates were intermediate (35%) for weekly physical activity among non-sedentary subjects (weekly PA_NS), and low (9-14%) for sedentarism, weekly physical activity (weekly PA), and level of daily physical activity (daily PA). Significant evidence for heterogeneity in variance components by gender was observed for the sedentarism and weekly PA phenotypes. No significant gender differences in genetic or environmental variance components were observed for the weekly PA_NS trait. The daily PA phenotype was predominantly influenced by environmental factors, with larger effects in males than in females.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Heritability estimates for physical activity phenotypes in this sample of the Brazilian population were significant in both males and females, and varied from low to intermediate magnitude. Significant evidence for heterogeneity in variance components by gender was observed. These data add to the knowledge of the physical activity traits in the Brazilian study population, and are concordant with the notion of significant biological determination in active behavior.</p

    Strange jet tagging at the FCC-ee using a transformer NN architecture and K short reconstruction

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    The successful identification of strange quark jets at the FCC-ee would enable the study of a multitude of largely unexplored processes, including the first ever study of Z->ss production, rare Higgs boson decays and the strange Yukawa coupling, CKM matrix elements via W decays, and BSM physics scenarios such as FCNCs. Due to the challenging nature of distinguishing these medium-mass quarks, strange tagging is a topic that has up to now received considerably less attention than its heavy flavour counterparts, or indeed gluon tagging. A multiclassifier neural network using a transformer-based architecture is coupled with secondary vertexing and a novel implementation of K short reconstruction at the FCC-ee to discriminate strange quark initiated jets. This poster presents a state-of-the-art strange quark tagger at the FCC-ee, with a focus on light quark discrimination at the Z pole

    Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol dependence : an fMRI study

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    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game ('cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC-insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 18 April 2012; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.54
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