383 research outputs found

    Energy savings in wireless networks through network coding

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    Форми затримки статевого дозрівання дівчаток, що проживають за умов дефіциту йоду

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    Вступ. У районах йодного дефіциту виявлена низька частка школярів, що мають гармонійний розвиток особистості, у третини дітей реєструються відхилення у статевому розвитку, а у половини дівчаток спостерігаються порушення показників репродуктивного здоров’я. Мета. Вивчити показники статевого розвитку у дітей із зони йодного дефіциту

    Inter-and intraspecific variation in fern mating systems after long-distance colonization: the importance of selfing

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Previous studies on the reproductive biology of ferns showed that mating strategies vary among species, and that polyploid species often show higher capacity for self-fertilization than diploid species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in mating strategy and selfing capacity has only been assessed for a few species. Yet, such variation may have important consequences during colonization, as the establishment of any selfing genotypes may be favoured after long-distance dispersal (an idea known as Baker's law).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We examined intra-and interspecific variation in potential for self-fertilization among four rare fern species, of which two were diploids and two were tetraploids: <it>Asplenium scolopendrium </it>(2n), <it>Asplenium trichomanes </it>subsp. <it>quadrivalens </it>(4n), <it>Polystichum setiferum </it>(2n) and <it>Polystichum aculeatum </it>(4n). Sporophyte production was tested at different levels of inbreeding, by culturing gametophytes in isolation, as well as in paired cultures with a genetically different gametophyte. We tested gametophytes derived from various genetically different sporophytes from populations in a recently planted forest colonized through long-distance dispersal (Kuinderbos, the Netherlands), as well as from older, less disjunct populations.</p> <p>Sporophyte production in isolation was high for Kuinderbos genotypes of all four species. Selfing capacity did not differ significantly between diploids and polyploids, nor between species in general. Rather selfing capacity differed between genotypes within species. Intraspecific variation in mating system was found in all four species. In two species one genotype from the Kuinderbos showed enhanced sporophyte production in paired cultures. For the other species, including a renowned out crosser, selfing capacity was consistently high.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results for four different species suggest that intraspecific variation in mating system may be common, at least among temperate calcicole ferns, and that genotypes with high selfing capacity may be present among polyploid as well as diploid ferns. The surprisingly high selfing capacity of all genotypes obtained from the Kuinderbos populations might be due to the isolated position of these populations. These populations may have established through single-spore colonization, which is only possible for genotypes capable of self-fertilization. Our results therewith support the idea that selection for selfing genotypes may occur during long-distance colonization, even in normally outcrossing, diploid ferns.</p

    The HF-AF ENERGY Trial:Nicotinamide Riboside for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients

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    Background: The presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction is common and associated with an increased risk of stroke, hospitalization and mortality. Recent research findings indicate that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels results in mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and consequently cardiomyocyte impairment in experimental and clinical HF and AF. The HF-AF ENERGY trial aims to investigate the cardioprotective effects of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) treatment in ischemic heart disease patients diagnosed with AF. Study design: The HF-AF ENERGY trial is a prospective intervention study. The study consists of a (retrospective) 4 months observation period and a 4 months intervention period. The cardioprotective effect of NR on AF burden is investigated by remote monitoring software of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), which enables continuous atrial rhythm monitoring detection. Cardiac dimension and function are examined by echocardiography. Laboratory blood analysis is performed to determine mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolism. All the study parameters are assessed at two fixed time points (pre- and post-treatment). Pre- and post-treatment outcomes are compared to determine the effects of NR treatment on AF burden, mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolism. Conclusion: The HF-AF ENERGY trial investigates the cardioprotective effects of NR on AF burden and whether NR normalizes blood-based mitochondrial function markers and energy metabolites of the NAD metabolome in ischemic heart disease patients diagnosed with AF. The study outcomes elucidate whether NAD+ metabolism can be used as a future therapy for HF patients with AF.</p

    Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver

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    Humans can register another person’s fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system) is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis). To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31) a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography) and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions).Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research awar

    Improved identification of left atrial enlargement in patients with obesity

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    Accurate standardization of left atrium volume (LAV) in patients with obesity is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate and to examine the relation between LAV indexed to height2 and left atrial function in patients with moderate to severe obesity. Echocardiograms of patients with moderate to severe obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) without known cardiac disease were analyzed. LAV was indexed to body surface area (BSA) and height2, and patients were divided into those with or without left atrial enlargement (LAE) based on normalization using either BSA (LAEbsa) or height2 (LAEh2). Using speckle tracking echocardiography, LA reservoir strain (LASr), LA conduit strain (LAScd), and LA contractile strain (LASct) were assessed as a measure of LA function. LA dysfunction was defined as LASct &lt; 14%. A total of 142 patients were included in the analysis of whom 54.2% had LAEh2 and 18.3% LAEBSA. The LAEh2 group had significantly lower LASct (12.2% ± 3.2% vs. 13.6% ± 4.5%, p = 0.019) as compared to the patients without LAEh2. Significantly more patients with LA dysfunction would be correctly identified by LAEh2 than by LAEBSA (41.5% vs. 15.0%, p &lt; 0.001). In patients with moderate to severe obesity, the use of LAEh2 identified significantly more patients with decreased LA function. LAVh2 should be preferred over LAVBSA in patients with moderate to severe obesity.</p

    Chemical fingerprints of emotional body odor

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    Chemical communication is common among animals. In humans, the chemical basis of social communication has remained a black box, despite psychological and neural research showing distinctive physiological, behavioral, and neural consequences of body odors emitted during emotional states like fear and happiness. We used a multidisciplinary approach to examine whether molecular cues could be associated with an emotional state in the emitter. Our research revealed that the volatile molecules transmitting different emotions to perceivers also have objectively different chemical properties. Chemical analysis of underarm sweat collected from the same donors in fearful, happy, and emotionally neutral states was conducted using untargeted two-dimensional (GC×GC) coupled with time of flight (ToF) MS-based profiling. Based on the multivariate statistical analyses, we find that the pattern of chemical volatiles (N = 1655 peaks) associated with fearful state is clearly different from that associated with (pleasant) neutral state. Happy sweat is also significantly different from the other states, chemically, but shows a bipolar pattern of overlap with fearful as well as neutral state. Candidate chemical classes associated with emotional and neutral sweat have been identified, specifically, linear aldehydes, ketones, esters, and cyclic molecules (5 rings). This research constitutes a first step toward identifying the chemical fingerprints of emotion.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Past, Present, and Future of Human Chemical Communication Research

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    Although chemical signaling is an essential mode of communication in most vertebrates, it has long been viewed as having negligible effects in humans. However, a growing body of evidence shows that the sense of smell affects human behavior in social contexts ranging from affiliation and parenting to disease avoidance and social threat. This article aims to (a) introduce research on human chemical communication in the historical context of the behavioral sciences; (b) provide a balanced overview of recent advances that describe individual differences in the emission of semiochemicals and the neural mechanisms underpinning their perception, that together demonstrate communicative function; and (c) propose directions for future research toward unraveling the molecular principles involved and understanding the variability in the generation, transmission, and reception of chemical signals in increasingly ecologically valid conditions. Achieving these goals will enable us to address some important societal challenges but are within reach only with the aid of genuinely interdisciplinary approaches

    Regulation of Kir4.1 expression in astrocytes and astrocytic tumors: a role for interleukin-1 beta

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Objective</p> <p>Decreased expression of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in astrocytes and glioma cells may contribute to impaired K<sup>+</sup> buffering and increased propensity for seizures. Here, we evaluated the potential effect of inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on Kir4.1 mRNA and protein expression.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We investigated Kir4.1 (Kcnj10) and IL-1β mRNA expression in the temporal cortex in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy 24 h and 1 week after induction of status epilepticus (SE), using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The U373 glioblastoma cell line and human fetal astrocytes were used to study the regulation of Kir4.1 expression in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Expression of Kir4.1 protein was also evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens of patients with astrocytic tumors (<it>n</it> = 64), comparing the expression in tumor patients with (<it>n</it> = 38) and without epilepsy (<it>n</it> = 26).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Twenty-four hours after onset of SE, Kir4.1 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in temporal cortex of epileptic rats. This decrease in expression was followed by a return to control level at 1 week after SE. The transient downregulation of Kir4.1 corresponded to the time of prominent upregulation of IL-1β mRNA. Expression of Kir4.1 mRNA and protein in glial cells in culture was downregulated after exposure to IL-1β. Evaluation of Kir4.1 in tumor specimens showed a significantly lower Kir4.1 expression in the specimens of patients with epilepsy compared to patients without epilepsy. This paralleled the increased presence of activated microglial cells, as well as the increased expression of IL-1β and the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Taken together, these findings indicate that alterations in expression of Kir4.1 occurring in epilepsy-associated lesions are possibly influenced by the local inflammatory environment and in particular by the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β.</p

    Tizanidine does not affect the linear relation of stretch duration to the long latency M2 response of m. flexor carpi radialis

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    The long latency M2 electromyographic response of a suddenly stretched active muscle is stretch duration dependent of which the nature is unclear. We investigated the influence of the group II afferent blocker tizanidine on M2 response characteristics of the m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR). M2 response magnitude and eliciting probability in a group of subjects receiving 4 mg of tizanidine orally were found to be significantly depressed by tizanidine while tizanidine did not affect the significant linear relation of the M2 response to stretch duration. The effect of tizanidine on the M2 response of FCR is supportive of a group II afferent contribution to a compound response of which the stretch duration dependency originates from a different mechanism, e.g., rebound Ia firing
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