14 research outputs found

    Beta-glucans to enhance adoptive therapy of anti-cancer T cells

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    Beta-glucans to enhance adoptive therapy of anti-cancer T cells

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    Consumption of β-glucans to spice up T cell treatment of tumors: a review

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    Introduction: Adoptive T-cell treatments of solid cancers have evolved into a robust therapy with objective response rates surpassing those of standardized treatments. Unfortunately, only a limited fraction of patients shows durable responses, which is considered to be due to a T cell-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Here we argue that naturally

    A potential role for regulatory T-cells in the amelioration of DSS induced colitis by dietary non-digestible polysaccharides

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    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction between a disturbed microbial composition, the intestinal mucosal barrier and the mucosal immune system plays an important role in IBD and its chronicity. It has been indicated that due to the altered microbial composition the balance between T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cells (Th) 17 is disturbed, leading to an inflammatory state. The present study shows that oral intake of a specific multi fibre mix (MF), designed to match the fibre content of a healthy diet, counteracts IBD-like intestinal inflammation and weight loss in dextran sodium sulphate treated mice. This reduction in inflammation might be brought about, at least in part, by the MF-induced decrease in inflammatory cytokines, increase in IL-10 and the relative increase in Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Moreover, the Treg percentage in the MLN correlates with the percentage of tolerogenic lamina propria derived CD103+RALDH+dendritic cells in the MLN, suggesting that these play a role in the observed effects. In children with CD exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a widely used safe and effective therapy. Optimizing enteral nutritional concepts with the tested fibre mix, know to modulate the gut microbiota composition, SCFA production and inflammatory status (as indicated by the present study) could possibly further improve efficacy in inducing remission

    Beta-glucans to enhance adoptive therapy of anti-cancer T cells

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    Curdlan, zymosan and a yeast-derived β-glucan reshape tumor-associated macrophages into producers of inflammatory chemo-attractants

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    Anti-cancer T-cell responses are often halted due to the immune-suppressive micro-environment, in part related to tumor-associated macrophages. In the current study, we assessed indigestible β-glucans (oatβG, curdlan, grifolan, schizophyllan, lentinan, yeast whole glucan particles (yWGP), zymosan and two additional yeast-derived β-glucans a and b) for their physicochemical properties as well as their effects on the plasticity of human monocyte-derived macrophages that were polarized with IL-4 to immune-suppressive macrophages. Beta-glucans were LPS/LTA free, and tested for solubility, molecular masses, protein and monosaccharide contents. Curdlan, yeast-b and zymosan re-polarized M(IL-4) macrophages towards an M1-like phenotype, in particular showing enhanced gene expression of CCR7, ICAM1 and CD80, and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. Notably, differential gene expression, pathway analysis as well as protein expressions demonstrated that M(IL-4) macrophages treated with curdlan, yeast-b or zymosan demonstrated enhanced production of chemo-attractants, such as CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL8, which contribute to recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. The secretion of chemo-attractants was confirmed when using patient-derived melanoma-infiltrating immune cells. Taken together, the bacterial-derived curdlan as well as the yeast-derived β-glucans yeast-b and zymosan have the unique ability to preferentially skew macrophages towards a chemo-attractant-producing phenotype that may aid in anti-cancer immune responses.</p

    Continuous Exposure to Non-Soluble β-Glucans Induces Trained Immunity in M-CSF-Differentiated Macrophages

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    Beta-glucans enable functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process defined as “trained immunity”, which results in enhanced host responsiveness against primary (training) and/or secondary infections (resilience). Trained immunity holds great promise for promoting immune responses in groups that are at risk (e.g. elderly and patients). In this study, we modified an existing in vitro model for trained immunity by actively inducing monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation using M-CSF and applying continuous exposure. This model reflects mucosal exposure to β-glucans and was used to study the training effects of a variety of soluble or non-soluble β-glucans derived from different sources including oat, mushrooms and yeast. In addition, trained immunity effects were related to pattern recognition receptor usage, to which end, we analyzed β-glucan-mediated Dectin-1 activation. We demonstrated that β-glucans, with different sources and solubilities, induced training and/or resilience effects. Notably, trained immunity significantly correlated with Dectin-1 receptor activation, yet Dectin-1 receptor activation did not perform as a sole predictor for β-glucan-mediated trained immunity. The model, as validated in this study, adds on to the existing in vitro model by specifically investigating macrophage responses and can be applied to select non-digestible dietary polysaccharides and other components for their potential to induce trained immunity

    Consumption of β-glucans to spice up T cell treatment of tumors: a review

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    textabstractIntroduction: Adoptive T-cell treatments of solid cancers have evolved into a robust therapy with objective response rates surpassing those of standardized treatments. Unfortunately, only a limited fraction of patients shows durable responses, which is considered to be due to a T cell-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Here we argue that naturally
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