1,603 research outputs found

### Quantum Darwinism requires an extra-theoretical assumption of encoding redundancy

Observers restricted to the observation of pointer states of apparatus cannot
conclusively demonstrate that the pointer of an apparatus A registers the state
of a system of interest S without perturbing S. Observers cannot, therefore,
conclusively demonstrate that the states of a system S are redundantly encoded
by pointer states of multiple independent apparatus without destroying the
redundancy of encoding. The redundancy of encoding required by quantum
Darwinism must, therefore, be assumed from outside the quantum-mechanical
formalism and without the possibility of experimental demonstration.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure. Comments on foundational assumptions of W. Zurek
(2009) Nat Phys 5 181 (arXiv 0903.5082). v2 significant revision to improve
clarit

### Topological Schr\"odinger cats: Non-local quantum superpositions of topological defects

Topological defects (such as monopoles, vortex lines, or domain walls) mark
locations where disparate choices of a broken symmetry vacuum elsewhere in the
system lead to irreconcilable differences. They are energetically costly (the
energy density in their core reaches that of the prior symmetric vacuum) but
topologically stable (the whole manifold would have to be rearranged to get rid
of the defect). We show how, in a paradigmatic model of a quantum phase
transition, a topological defect can be put in a non-local superposition, so
that - in a region large compared to the size of its core - the order parameter
of the system is "undecided" by being in a quantum superposition of conflicting
choices of the broken symmetry. We demonstrate how to exhibit such a
"Schr\"odinger kink" by devising a version of a double-slit experiment suitable
for topological defects. Coherence detectable in such experiments will be
suppressed as a consequence of interaction with the environment. We analyze
environment-induced decoherence and discuss its role in symmetry breaking.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

### Finite-Time Disentanglement via Spontaneous Emission

We show that under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits
become completely disentangled in a finite time, and in a specific example we
find the time to be given by $\ln \Big(\frac{2 +\sqrt 2}{2}\Big)$ times the
usual spontaneous lifetime.Comment: revtex, 4 pages, 2 figure

### Multichannel direct detection of light dark matter: Target comparison

Direct-detection experiments for light dark matter are making enormous leaps in reaching previously unexplored model space. Several recent proposals rely on collective excitations, where the experimental sensitivity is highly dependent on detailed properties of the target material, well beyond just nucleus mass numbers as in conventional searches. It is thus important to optimize the target choice when considering which experiment to build. We carry out a comparative study of target materials across several detection channels, focusing on electron transitions and single (acoustic or optical) phonon excitations in crystals, as well as the traditional nuclear recoils. We compare materials currently in use in nuclear recoil experiments (Si, Ge, NaI, CsI, CaWO4), a few of which have been proposed for light dark matter experiments (GaAs, Al2O3, diamond), as well as 16 other promising polar crystals across all detection channels. We find that target- and dark-matter-model-dependent reach is largely determined by a small number of material parameters: speed of sound, electronic band gap, mass number, Born effective charge, high-frequency dielectric constant, and optical phonon energies. We showcase, for each of the two benchmark models, an exemplary material that has a better reach than in any currently proposed experiment

### Symbiotic stars in the Local Group of Galaxies

Preliminary results of the ongoing search for symbiotic binary stars in the
Local Group of Galaxies are presented and discussed.Comment: Proceedings of Physics of Evolved Stars 2015: A Conference Dedicated
to the Memory of Olivier Chesneau, Nice, 8-12 June 201

### Measurement of energy eigenstates by a slow detector

We propose a method for a weak continuous measurement of the energy
eigenstates of a fast quantum system by means of a "slow" detector. Such a
detector is only sensitive to slowly-changing variables, e. g. energy, while
its back-action can be limited solely to decoherence of the eigenstate
superpositions. We apply this scheme to the problem of detection of quantum
jumps between energy eigenstates in a harmonic oscillator.Comment: 4 page

### Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations

We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of
mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data
beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino
and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines
(from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs
is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the
acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower
energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Version to appear in PR

### A Stepwise Planned Approach to the Solution of Hilbert's Sixth Problem. III : Measurements and von Neumann Projection/Collapse Rule

Supmech, the universal mechanics developed in the previous two papers,
accommodates both quantum and classical mechanics as subdisciplines (a brief
outline is included for completeness); this feature facilitates, in a supmech
based treatment of quantum measurements, an unambiguous treatment of the
apparatus as a quantum system approximated well by a classical one. Taking
explicitly into consideration the fact that observations on the apparatus are
made when it has `settled down after the measurement interaction' and are
restricted to macroscopically distinguishable pointer readings, the unwanted
superpositions of (system + apparatus) states are shown to be suppressed; this
provides a genuinely physics based justification for the (traditionally
\emph{postulated}) von Neumann projection/collapse rule. The decoherence
mechanism brought into play by the stated observational constraints is free
from the objections against the traditional decoherence program.Comment: 29 pages; one section and two references added; results unchange

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