1,603 research outputs found

    Quantum Darwinism requires an extra-theoretical assumption of encoding redundancy

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    Observers restricted to the observation of pointer states of apparatus cannot conclusively demonstrate that the pointer of an apparatus A registers the state of a system of interest S without perturbing S. Observers cannot, therefore, conclusively demonstrate that the states of a system S are redundantly encoded by pointer states of multiple independent apparatus without destroying the redundancy of encoding. The redundancy of encoding required by quantum Darwinism must, therefore, be assumed from outside the quantum-mechanical formalism and without the possibility of experimental demonstration.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure. Comments on foundational assumptions of W. Zurek (2009) Nat Phys 5 181 (arXiv 0903.5082). v2 significant revision to improve clarit

    Topological Schr\"odinger cats: Non-local quantum superpositions of topological defects

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    Topological defects (such as monopoles, vortex lines, or domain walls) mark locations where disparate choices of a broken symmetry vacuum elsewhere in the system lead to irreconcilable differences. They are energetically costly (the energy density in their core reaches that of the prior symmetric vacuum) but topologically stable (the whole manifold would have to be rearranged to get rid of the defect). We show how, in a paradigmatic model of a quantum phase transition, a topological defect can be put in a non-local superposition, so that - in a region large compared to the size of its core - the order parameter of the system is "undecided" by being in a quantum superposition of conflicting choices of the broken symmetry. We demonstrate how to exhibit such a "Schr\"odinger kink" by devising a version of a double-slit experiment suitable for topological defects. Coherence detectable in such experiments will be suppressed as a consequence of interaction with the environment. We analyze environment-induced decoherence and discuss its role in symmetry breaking.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Finite-Time Disentanglement via Spontaneous Emission

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    We show that under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits become completely disentangled in a finite time, and in a specific example we find the time to be given by ln(2+22)\ln \Big(\frac{2 +\sqrt 2}{2}\Big) times the usual spontaneous lifetime.Comment: revtex, 4 pages, 2 figure

    Multichannel direct detection of light dark matter: Target comparison

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    Direct-detection experiments for light dark matter are making enormous leaps in reaching previously unexplored model space. Several recent proposals rely on collective excitations, where the experimental sensitivity is highly dependent on detailed properties of the target material, well beyond just nucleus mass numbers as in conventional searches. It is thus important to optimize the target choice when considering which experiment to build. We carry out a comparative study of target materials across several detection channels, focusing on electron transitions and single (acoustic or optical) phonon excitations in crystals, as well as the traditional nuclear recoils. We compare materials currently in use in nuclear recoil experiments (Si, Ge, NaI, CsI, CaWO4), a few of which have been proposed for light dark matter experiments (GaAs, Al2O3, diamond), as well as 16 other promising polar crystals across all detection channels. We find that target- and dark-matter-model-dependent reach is largely determined by a small number of material parameters: speed of sound, electronic band gap, mass number, Born effective charge, high-frequency dielectric constant, and optical phonon energies. We showcase, for each of the two benchmark models, an exemplary material that has a better reach than in any currently proposed experiment

    Symbiotic stars in the Local Group of Galaxies

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    Preliminary results of the ongoing search for symbiotic binary stars in the Local Group of Galaxies are presented and discussed.Comment: Proceedings of Physics of Evolved Stars 2015: A Conference Dedicated to the Memory of Olivier Chesneau, Nice, 8-12 June 201

    Measurement of energy eigenstates by a slow detector

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    We propose a method for a weak continuous measurement of the energy eigenstates of a fast quantum system by means of a "slow" detector. Such a detector is only sensitive to slowly-changing variables, e. g. energy, while its back-action can be limited solely to decoherence of the eigenstate superpositions. We apply this scheme to the problem of detection of quantum jumps between energy eigenstates in a harmonic oscillator.Comment: 4 page

    Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations

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    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Version to appear in PR

    A Stepwise Planned Approach to the Solution of Hilbert's Sixth Problem. III : Measurements and von Neumann Projection/Collapse Rule

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    Supmech, the universal mechanics developed in the previous two papers, accommodates both quantum and classical mechanics as subdisciplines (a brief outline is included for completeness); this feature facilitates, in a supmech based treatment of quantum measurements, an unambiguous treatment of the apparatus as a quantum system approximated well by a classical one. Taking explicitly into consideration the fact that observations on the apparatus are made when it has `settled down after the measurement interaction' and are restricted to macroscopically distinguishable pointer readings, the unwanted superpositions of (system + apparatus) states are shown to be suppressed; this provides a genuinely physics based justification for the (traditionally \emph{postulated}) von Neumann projection/collapse rule. The decoherence mechanism brought into play by the stated observational constraints is free from the objections against the traditional decoherence program.Comment: 29 pages; one section and two references added; results unchange
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