16 research outputs found

    Synthesis of New Shogaol Analogues as NRF2 Activators and Evaluation of Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Modes of Action and Metabolic Stability

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    6-shogaol is a natural and the most potent bioactive vanilloid in dried Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Many scientific studies have reported the diverse biological activities of 6-shogaol. However, the major drawback of 6-shogaol is its instability at room temperature. We synthesised new shogaol thiophene compounds (STCs) by replacing the pentyl group in the sidechain with thiophene derivatives. The STCs were tested for their nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation ability in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa1c1c-7) by determining their NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) inducing ability and expression of NRF2-associated antioxidant genes. The anti-inflammatory activity of STCs was determined in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPSEc)-stimulated NR2-proficient and -silenced mouse microglial cells (BV-2) by measuring the inflammatory markers, cytokines, and mediators. The modes of action (interacting with the Kelch domain of KEAP1, covalent bonding with cysteines of KEAP1, and inhibition of GSK-3β enzyme activity) of NRF2 activation by STCs were determined using commercially available kits. The in vitro metabolic stability of the STCs in liver microsomes (humans, rats, and mice) was also investigated. The molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies were conducted to identify the binding poses, stability, and molecular interactions of the STCs in the binding pockets of Kelch and BTB domains of KEAP1 and GSK-3β enzyme. The new STCs were synthesised in good yields of > 85%, with a purity of about 95%, using a novel synthesis method by employing a reusable proline–proline dipeptide catalyst. The STCs are more potent than 6-shogaol in activating NRF2 and reducing inflammation. The nature of substituents on thiophene has a profound influence on the bioactivity of the STCs. Phenylthiophene STC (STC5) is the most potent, while thiophenes containing electron-withdrawing groups showed weaker bioactivity. The bioactivity of 6-shogaol is in the micromolar range, whereas STC5 showed bioactivity in the sub micromolar range. The STCs showed anti-inflammatory effects via NRF2-dependent and NRF2-independent mechanisms. The STCs improved NRF2 activity through multiple (KEAP1-independent and -dependent) mechanisms. The STCs showed decreased reactivity with thiols than 6-shogaol and thus may possess fewer side-effects than 6-shogaol. The STCs were more metabolically stable than 6-shogaol

    Synthesis of new shogaol analogues as NRF2 activators and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activity, modes of action and metabolic stability

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    6-shogaol is a natural and the most potent bioactive vanilloid in dried Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Many scientific studies have reported the diverse biological activities of 6-shogaol. However, the major drawback of 6-shogaol is its instability at room temperature. We synthesised new shogaol thiophene compounds (STCs) by replacing the pentyl group in the sidechain with thiophene derivatives. The STCs were tested for their nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation ability in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa1c1c-7) by determining their NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) inducing ability and expression of NRF2-associated antioxidant genes. The anti-inflammatory activity of STCs was determined in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPSEc)-stimulated NR2-proficient and -silenced mouse microglial cells (BV-2) by measuring the inflammatory markers, cytokines, and mediators. The modes of action (interacting with the Kelch domain of KEAP1, covalent bonding with cysteines of KEAP1, and inhibition of GSK-3β enzyme activity) of NRF2 activation by STCs were determined using commercially available kits. The in vitro metabolic stability of the STCs in liver microsomes (humans, rats, and mice) was also investigated. The molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies were conducted to identify the binding poses, stability, and molecular interactions of the STCs in the binding pockets of Kelch and BTB domains of KEAP1 and GSK-3β enzyme. The new STCs were synthesised in good yields of > 85%, with a purity of about 95%, using a novel synthesis method by employing a reusable proline–proline dipeptide catalyst. The STCs are more potent than 6-shogaol in activating NRF2 and reducing inflammation. The nature of substituents on thiophene has a profound influence on the bioactivity of the STCs. Phenylthiophene STC (STC5) is the most potent, while thiophenes containing electron-withdrawing groups showed weaker bioactivity. The bioactivity of 6-shogaol is in the micromolar range, whereas STC5 showed bioactivity in the sub micromolar range. The STCs showed anti-inflammatory effects via NRF2-dependent and NRF2-independent mechanisms. The STCs improved NRF2 activity through multiple (KEAP1-independent and -dependent) mechanisms. The STCs showed decreased reactivity with thiols than 6-shogaol and thus may possess fewer side-effects than 6-shogaol. The STCs were more metabolically stable than 6-shogaol

    Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of 2-Amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-Derived NRF2 Activators

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    This is the first study investigating the nuclear factor (erythroid‐derived 2)‐like 2 (NRF2) activity of compounds containing a new scaffold, tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene. Eighteen compounds were synthesised and confirmed their NRF2 activation through NQO1 enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of NQO1 and HO‐1 in Hepa‐1c1c7 cells. The compounds disrupted the interaction between Kelch‐like ECH‐associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and NRF2 via interfering with the KEAP1’s Kelch domain. The compounds exhibited anti‐inflammatory activity in Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS( Ec ))‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The anti‐inflammatory activity of the compounds was associated with their ability to activate NRF2. The compounds reversed the elevated levels of pro‐inflammatory cytokines (IL‐1β, IL‐6, TNF‐α, and IFN‐γ) and inflammatory mediators (PGE2, COX‐2, and NF‐κB). The compounds were metabolically stable in human, rat, and mouse liver microsomes and showed optimum half‐life (T(1/2)) and intrinsic clearance (Cl(int)). The binding mode of the compounds and physicochemical properties were predicted via in silico studies

    Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Auranamide and Patriscabratine-Mechanisms and In Silico Studies

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    Auranamide and patriscabratine are amides from Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith. Their anti-inflammatory activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation ability were evaluated using Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPSEc)-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and murine hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) cells, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the nitric oxide (NO) production and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-1β, Interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6) and mediators (NF-κB and COX-2). NRF2 activation was determined by measuring the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear NRF2 and hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In vitro metabolic stability was assessed using the mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes. The compounds were non-toxic to the cells at 10 μM. Both compounds showed dose-dependent effects in downregulating NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. The compounds also showed upregulation of NQO1 activity and nuclear NRF2 and HO-1 levels. The compounds were metabolically stable in mouse, rat and human liver microsomes. The possible molecular targets of NRF2 activation by these two compounds were predicted using molecular docking studies and it was found that the compounds might inhibit the Kelch domain of KEAP1 and GSK-3β activity. The physicochemical and drug-like properties of the test compounds were predicted using Schrodinger small molecule drug discovery suite (v.2022-2)

    Pharmacy education during and beyond COVID-19 in six Asia-Pacific countries: changes, challenges, and experiences

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    The COVID-19 pandemic shifted pharmacy education to remote teaching and learning (T&L) strategies. To share changes, challenges, and experiences in pharmacy education among member countries, the Federation of Asian Pharmaceutical Associations hosted a 1.5-hour webinar on 15th May 2020. Questions collected during registration and the live webinar were coded using thematic analysis. A total of 794 participants from 18 countries/territories registered, while 346 attended the webinar. Of 445 questions, 392 were from the registration form and 53 from the webinar. All questions were coded to four major themes: new normal pharmacy education, ethics and safety, material accessibility, and teaching and evaluation methods. Questions during registration were mostly on new normal adaptation (n=79), T&L formats (n=65), and access/resources/ sustainability (n=59). Webinar questions were mainly on assessment format (n=13), laboratory skills (n=9), and access/resources/sustainability (n=9). The webinar provided an opportunity to quickly identify issues regarding pharmacy education during the COVID-19 pandemic for prompt actions and further research

    Recent Emergence of Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complexes as Photosensitisers for Cancer Therapy

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    International audiencePhotodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a significant complementary or alternative approach for cancer treatment. PDT drugs act as photosensitisers, which upon using appropriate wavelength light and in the presence of molecular oxygen, can lead to cell death. Herein, we reviewed the general characteristics of the different generation of photosensitisers. We also outlined the emergence of rhenium (Re) and more specifically, Re(I) tricarbonyl complexes as a new generation of metal-based photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy that are of great interest in multidisciplinary research. The photophysical properties and structures of Re(I) complexes discussed in this review are summarised to determine basic features and similarities among the structures that are important for their phototoxic activity and future investigations. We further examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the Re(I) complexes that have been synthesised for anticancer purposes. We also discussed Re(I) complexes in conjunction with the advancement of two-photon PDT, drug combination study, nanomedicine, and photothermal therapy to overcome the limitation of such complexes, which generally absorb short wavelengths

    Challenges and opportunities of nanotechnology as delivery platform for tocotrienols in cancer therapy

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    Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienols to tumor sites for enhanced efficacy. To date, preclinical development of nanocarriers for tocotrienols include niosomes, lipid nanoemulsions, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and polymeric nanoparticles. Active targeting was explored via the use of transferrin as targeting ligand in niosomes. In vitro, nanocarriers were shown to enhance the anti-proliferative efficacy and cellular uptake of tocotrienols in cancer cells. In vivo, improved bioavailability of tocotrienols were reported with NLCs while marked tumor regression was observed with transferrin-targeted niosomes. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each nanocarriers were critically analyzed. Furthermore, a number of key challenges were identified including scale-up production, biological barriers and toxicity profiles. To overcome these challenges, three research opportunities were highlighted based on rapid advancements in the field of nanomedicine. This review aims to provide a wholesome perspective for tocotrienol nanoformulations in cancer therapy directed towards effective clinical translation

    Relationship Dimension In University Laboratories And Its Effects On Students’ Interest

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    Malaysian universities are currently facing a decline of students’ interest in science. It is perceived that the students’ practices in laboratory activities with properly managed activities could result in positive interest in science. In that sense, it is argued that laboratory activities are less constrained, creating excellent opportunities for the interaction between instructor and students to occur. Hence, this study was aimed to examine the relationship dimension in university laboratories and its’ connection towards the students’ interest in a science subject. Drawing upon a survey conducted over 321 science students in four Malaysian Universities, a series of exploratory factorial, descriptive and regression analyses were applied in this study context. The results proved that in the aspects of instructor supportiveness, student cohesiveness and involvement explained 56.15% of the variations and exhibited a positive relationship with the students’ interest in science. Subsequent analysis also found that both instructor supportiveness and student cohesiveness demonstrated significant contributions of 17.2%. The relationship dimension definitely showed significant contribution although in small percentages. As the laboratory objectives are ultimately important to achieve, future research should examine the best practices in laboratory to develop students’ interest in science
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