19 research outputs found

    Synthetic enzymes for synthetic substrates

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    In recent years, hydrolases like cutinases, esterases and lipases have been recognized as powerful tools for hydrolysis of synthetic polymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as an environmentally friendly alternative for environmentally harmful chemical recycling methods1. PET is currently the most common type of aromatic polyester, with widespread application as packaging material, beverage bottles, and synthetic textile fibers. So far, cutinases have been the most active enzyme class regarding PET degradation. In nature, cutinases catalyze the hydrolysis of the aliphatic biopolyester cutin, the structural component of plant cuticle. Although cutinases are able to act on natural insoluble polyesters, their activities on non-natural substrates are quit low. For this reason, different engineering strategies were established to optimize “polyesterases” for synthetic polymers (Fig.1). Thereby, development of rationale enzyme-engineering strategies led to remarkable enhancement of hydrolytic activities on polyesters and clearly showed that the affinity between the enzyme and the substrate plays a key role in the enzymatic hydrolysis of synthetic polyester. Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract

    A fungal ascorbate oxidase with unexpected laccase activity

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    Ascorbate oxidases are an enzyme group that has not been explored to a large extent. So far, mainly ascorbate oxidases from plants and only a few from fungi have been described. Although ascorbate oxidases belong to the well-studied enzyme family of multi-copper oxidases, their function is still unclear. In this study, Af_AO1, an enzyme from the fungus Aspergillus flavus, was characterized. Sequence analyses and copper content determination demonstrated Af_AO1 to belong to the multi-copper oxidase family. Biochemical characterization and 3D-modeling revealed a similarity to ascorbate oxidases, but also to laccases. Af_AO1 had a 10-fold higher affinity to ascorbic acid (KM = 0.16 ± 0.03 mM) than to ABTS (KM = 1.89 ± 0.12 mM). Furthermore, the best fitting 3D-model was based on the ascorbate oxidase from Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo. The laccase-like activity of Af_AO1 on ABTS (Vmax = 11.56 ± 0.15 ”M/min/mg) was, however, not negligible. On the other hand, other typical laccase substrates, such as syringaldezine and guaiacol, were not oxidized by Af_AO1. According to the biochemical and structural characterization, Af_AO1 was classified as ascorbate oxidase with unusual, laccase-like activityPeer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Characterization of organelles from the yeast Pichia pastoris

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    Sabine ZitzenbacherZsfassung in dt. SpracheGraz, Univ., Masterarb., 2009(VLID)24573

    Biomimetic Approach to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Synthetic Polyester Poly(1,4-butylene adipate): Fusing Binding Modules to Esterases

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    Mimicking a concept of nature for the hydrolysis of biopolymers, the <i>Thermobifida cellulosilytica</i> cutinase 1 (Thc_Cut1) was fused to a polymer binding module (PBM) to enhance the hydrolysis of the polyester poly­(1,4-butylene adipate) (PBA). Namely, the binding module of a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from <i>Alcaligenes faecalis</i> (Thc_Cut1_PBM) was attached to the cutinase via two different linker sequences varying in length. In order to investigate the adsorption behavior, catalytically inactive mutants both of Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut1_PBM were successfully constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of serine 131 to alanine. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) analysis revealed that the initial mass increase during enzyme adsorption was larger for the inactive enzymes linked with the PBM as compared to the enzyme without the PBM. The hydrolysis rates of PBA were significantly enhanced when incubated with the active, engineered Thc_Cut1_PBM as compared to the native Thc_Cut1. Thc_Cut1_PBM completely hydrolyzed PBA thin films on QCM-D sensors within approximately 40 min, whereas twice as much time was required for the complete hydrolysis by the native Thc_Cut1

    Hydrolysis of Ionic Phthalic Acid Based Polyesters by Wastewater Microorganisms and Their Enzymes

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    Water-soluble polyesters are used in a range of applications today and enter wastewater treatment plants after product utilization. However, little is known about extracellular enzymes and aquatic microorganisms involved in polyester biodegradation and mineralization. In this study, structurally different ionic phthalic acid based polyesters (the number-average molecular weights (<i>M</i><sub>n</sub>) 1770 to 10 000 g/mol and semi crystalline with crystallinity below 1%) were synthesized in various combinations. Typical wastewater microorganisms like <i>Pseudomonas</i> sp. were chosen for <i>in-silico</i> screening toward polyester hydrolyzing enzymes. Based on the <i>in-silico</i> search, a cutinase from <i>Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes</i> (PpCutA) and a putative lipase from <i>Pseudomonas pelagia</i> (PpelaLip) were identified. The enzymes PpCutA and PpelaLip were demonstrated to hydrolyze all structurally different polyesters. Activities on all the polyesters were also confirmed with the strains <i>P. pseudoalcaligenes</i> and <i>P. pelagia</i>. Parameters identified to enhance hydrolysis included increased water solubility and polyester hydrophilicity as well as shorter diol chain lengths. For example, polyesters containing 1,2-ethanediol were hydrolyzed faster than polyesters containing 1,8-octanediol. Interestingly, the same trend was observed in biodegradation experiments. This information is important to gain a better mechanistic understanding of biodegradation processes of polyesters in WWTPs where the extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis seems to be the limiting step

    Hydrolysis of Ionic Phthalic Acid Based Polyesters by Wastewater Microorganisms and Their Enzymes

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    Water-soluble polyesters are used in a range of applications today and enter wastewater treatment plants after product utilization. However, little is known about extracellular enzymes and aquatic microorganisms involved in polyester biodegradation and mineralization. In this study, structurally different ionic phthalic acid based polyesters (the number-average molecular weights (<i>M</i><sub>n</sub>) 1770 to 10 000 g/mol and semi crystalline with crystallinity below 1%) were synthesized in various combinations. Typical wastewater microorganisms like <i>Pseudomonas</i> sp. were chosen for <i>in-silico</i> screening toward polyester hydrolyzing enzymes. Based on the <i>in-silico</i> search, a cutinase from <i>Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes</i> (PpCutA) and a putative lipase from <i>Pseudomonas pelagia</i> (PpelaLip) were identified. The enzymes PpCutA and PpelaLip were demonstrated to hydrolyze all structurally different polyesters. Activities on all the polyesters were also confirmed with the strains <i>P. pseudoalcaligenes</i> and <i>P. pelagia</i>. Parameters identified to enhance hydrolysis included increased water solubility and polyester hydrophilicity as well as shorter diol chain lengths. For example, polyesters containing 1,2-ethanediol were hydrolyzed faster than polyesters containing 1,8-octanediol. Interestingly, the same trend was observed in biodegradation experiments. This information is important to gain a better mechanistic understanding of biodegradation processes of polyesters in WWTPs where the extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis seems to be the limiting step

    A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Polylactic Acid (PLA)

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    A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethyl)terephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme) while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively

    Small cause, large effect: Structural characterization of cutinases from Thermobifida cellulosilytica

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    We have investigated the structures of two native cutinases from Thermobifida cellulosilytica, namely Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut2 as well as of two variants, Thc_Cut2_DM (Thc_Cut2_ Arg29Asn_Ala30Val) and Thc_Cut2_TM (Thc_Cut2_Arg19Ser_Arg29Asn_Ala30Val). The four enzymes showed different activities towards the aliphatic polyester poly(lactic acid) (PLLA). The crystal structures of the four enzymes were successfully solved and in combination with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) the structural features responsible for the selectivity difference were elucidated. Analysis of the crystal structures did not indicate significant conformational differences among the different cutinases. However, the distinctive SAXS scattering data collected from the enzymes in solution indicated a remarkable surface charge difference. The difference in the electrostatic and hydrophobic surface properties could explain potential alternative binding modes of the four cutinases on PLLA explaining their distinct activities
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