171 research outputs found

    The Commutative Effect and Casuality of Openness and Indigenous Factors Among World Economies

    Get PDF
    The paper studies the commutative and causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their commutative effect and causality. The empirical findings show that there is a positive and significant static effect of openness on indigenous factors and vice versa; however the latter is larger. There are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous factors. Indigenous factors help to forecast openness factors and vice versa.Openness, indigeneity, panel data model, commutative effect, causality

    The commutative effect and causality of openness and indigenous factors among world economies

    Get PDF
    The paper studies the commutative and causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their commutative effect and causality. The empirical findings show that there is a positive and significant static effect of openness on indigenous factors and vice versa; however the latter is larger. There are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous factors. Indigenous factors help to forecast openness factors and vice versa

    The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Get PDF
    After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD) of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group). Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group), decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability<0.01). The gallstone incidence in the control group, that only received laparotomy without ligation of the CBD, was 0/15. Biochemical analysis of the gallbladder bile showed that stricture of the CBD was associated with a significant increase in levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and Ca2+ (p<0.05 and <0.01). Simultaneously the scavenging rate (SR) of superoxide radical in bile significantly decreased (p<0.05). Comparing S+V group with S group, the effect of Vit. E and C on the concentrations of UCB and Ca2+ in bile was not significant (both p>0.05), but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05). These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction

    Causality between openness and indigenous factors among world economies

    Get PDF
    The paper studies the causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their causality. The empirical findings show that there are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous factors. Indigenous factors help to forecast openness factors and vice versa

    Causality between openness and indigenous factors among world economies

    Get PDF

    The Commutative Effect and Casuality of Openness and Indigenous Factors Among World Economies

    Get PDF
    The paper studies the commutative and causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their commutative effect and causality. The empirical findings show that there is a positive and significant static effect of openness on indigenous factors and vice versa; however the latter is larger. There are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous factors. Indigenous factors help to forecast openness factors and vice versa
    • …
    corecore