66 research outputs found

    Emerging Applications of Reversible Data Hiding

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    Reversible data hiding (RDH) is one special type of information hiding, by which the host sequence as well as the embedded data can be both restored from the marked sequence without loss. Beside media annotation and integrity authentication, recently some scholars begin to apply RDH in many other fields innovatively. In this paper, we summarize these emerging applications, including steganography, adversarial example, visual transformation, image processing, and give out the general frameworks to make these operations reversible. As far as we are concerned, this is the first paper to summarize the extended applications of RDH.Comment: ICIGP 201

    Mapping spatial and temporal distribution information of plantations in Guangxi from 2000 to 2020

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    Plantations are formed entirely by artificial planting which are different from natural forests. The rapid expansion of plantation forestry has brought about a series of ecological and environmental problems. Timely and accurate information on the distribution of plantation resources and continuous monitoring of the dynamic changes in plantations are of great significance. However, plantations have similar spectral and texture characteristics with natural forests. In addition, cloud and rain greatly affected the image quality of large area mapping. Here, we tested the possibility of applying Continuous Change Detection and Classification to distinguish plantations from natural forests and described the spatiotemporal dynamic changes of plantations. We adopted the Continuous Change Detection and Classification algorithm and used all available Landsat images from 2000 to 2020 to map annual plantation forest distribution in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China and analyzed their spatial and temporal dynamic changes. The overall accuracy of the plantation extraction is 88.77%. Plantations in Guangxi increased significantly in the past 20‚ÄČyears, from 2.37‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ106‚ÄČha to 5.11‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ106‚ÄČha. Guangxi is expanding new plantation land every year, with the largest expansion area in 2009 of about 2.58‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ105‚ÄČha. Over the past 20‚ÄČyears, plantations in Guangxi have clearly shown a tendency to expand from the southeast to the northwest, transformed from natural forests and farmland. 30% of plantations have experienced at least one logging-and-replanting rotation event. Logging rotation events more intensively occur in areas with dense plantation forests. Our study proves that using fitting coefficients from Continuous Change Detection and Classification algorithm is effective to extract plantations and mitigating the adverse effects of clouds and rain on optical images in a large scale, which provides a fast and effective method for long-time and large-area plantation identification and spatiotemporal distribution information extraction, and strong data support and decision reference for plantation investigation, monitoring and management

    Whether interstitial space features were the main factors affecting sediment microbial community structures in Chaohu Lake

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    Sediments cover a majority of Earth’s surface and are essential for global biogeochemical cycles. The effects of sediment physiochemical features on microbial community structures have attracted attention in recent years. However, the question of whether the interstitial space has significant effects on microbial community structures in submerged sediments remains unclear. In this study, based on identified OTUs (operational taxonomic units), correlation analysis, RDA analysis, and Permanova analysis were applied into investigating the effects of interstitial space volume, interstitial gas space, volumetric water content, sediment particle features (average size and evenness), and sediment depth on microbial community structures in different sedimentation areas of Chaohu Lake (Anhui Province, China). Our results indicated that sediment depth was the closest one to the main environmental gradient. The destruction effects of gas space on sediment structures can physically affect the similarity of the whole microbial community in all layers in river dominated sedimentation area (where methane emits actively). However, including gas space, none of the five interstitial space parameters were significant with accounting for the microbial community structures in a sediment layer. Thus, except for the happening of active physical destruction on sediment structures (for example, methane ebullition), sediment interstitial space parameters were ineffective for affecting microbial community structures in all sedimentation areas

    Study on the structure-activity relationship of an antimicrobial peptide, Brevinin-2GUb, from the skin secretion of Hylarana guentheri

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    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered potential alternatives to antibiotics due to their advantages in solving antibiotic resistance. Brevinin-2GUb, which was extracted from the skin secretion of Hylarana guentheri, is a peptide with modest antimicrobial activity. Several analogues were designed to explore the structure‚Äďactivity relationship and enhance its activity. In general, the Rana box is not an indispensable motif for the bioactivity of Brevinin-2GUb, and the first to the 19th amino acids at the N-terminal end are active fragments, such that shortening the peptide while maintaining its bioactivity is a promising strategy for the optimisation of peptides. Keeping a complete hydrophobic face and increasing the net charges are key factors for antimicrobial activity. With the increase of cationic charges, őĪ-helical proportion, and amphipathicity, the activity of t-Brevinin-2GUb-6K (tB2U-6K), in combatting bacteria, drastically improved, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, and the peptide attained the capacity to kill clinical isolates and fungi as well, which made it possible to address some aspects of antibiotic resistance. Thus, peptide tB2U-6K, with potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the capacity to inhibit the growth of biofilm, and low toxicity against normal cells, is of value to be further developed into an antimicrobial agent

    Author Correction: The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.Peer reviewe

    Global, regional, and national burden of disorders affecting the nervous system, 1990‚Äď2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021

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    BackgroundDisorders affecting the nervous system are diverse and include neurodevelopmental disorders, late-life neurodegeneration, and newly emergent conditions, such as cognitive impairment following COVID-19. Previous publications from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor Study estimated the burden of 15 neurological conditions in 2015 and 2016, but these analyses did not include neurodevelopmental disorders, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11, or a subset of cases of congenital, neonatal, and infectious conditions that cause neurological damage. Here, we estimate nervous system health loss caused by 37 unique conditions and their associated risk factors globally, regionally, and nationally from 1990 to 2021.MethodsWe estimated mortality, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs), by age and sex in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2021. We included morbidity and deaths due to neurological conditions, for which health loss is directly due to damage to the CNS or peripheral nervous system. We also isolated neurological health loss from conditions for which nervous system morbidity is a consequence, but not the primary feature, including a subset of congenital conditions (ie, chromosomal anomalies and congenital birth defects), neonatal conditions (ie, jaundice, preterm birth, and sepsis), infectious diseases (ie, COVID-19, cystic echinococcosis, malaria, syphilis, and Zika virus disease), and diabetic neuropathy. By conducting a sequela-level analysis of the health outcomes for these conditions, only cases where nervous system damage occurred were included, and YLDs were recalculated to isolate the non-fatal burden directly attributable to nervous system health loss. A comorbidity correction was used to calculate total prevalence of all conditions that affect the nervous system combined.FindingsGlobally, the 37 conditions affecting the nervous system were collectively ranked as the leading group cause of DALYs in 2021 (443 million, 95% UI 378‚Äď521), affecting 3¬∑40 billion (3¬∑20‚Äď3¬∑62) individuals (43¬∑1%, 40¬∑5‚Äď45¬∑9 of the global population); global DALY counts attributed to these conditions increased by 18¬∑2% (8¬∑7‚Äď26¬∑7) between 1990 and 2021. Age-standardised rates of deaths per 100‚ÄČ000 people attributed to these conditions decreased from 1990 to 2021 by 33¬∑6% (27¬∑6‚Äď38¬∑8), and age-standardised rates of DALYs attributed to these conditions decreased by 27¬∑0% (21¬∑5‚Äď32¬∑4). Age-standardised prevalence was almost stable, with a change of 1¬∑5% (0¬∑7‚Äď2¬∑4). The ten conditions with the highest age-standardised DALYs in 2021 were stroke, neonatal encephalopathy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, diabetic neuropathy, meningitis, epilepsy, neurological complications due to preterm birth, autism spectrum disorder, and nervous system cancer.InterpretationAs the leading cause of overall disease burden in the world, with increasing global DALY counts, effective prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies for disorders affecting the nervous system are needed