147,317 research outputs found

    First-Principles Study of Integer Quantum Hall Transitions in Mesoscopic Samples

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    We perform first principles numerical simulations to investigate resistance fluctuations in mesoscopic samples, near the transition between consecutive Quantum Hall plateaus. We use six-terminal geometry and sample sizes similar to those of real devices. The Hall and longitudinal resistances extracted from the generalized Landauer formula reproduce all the experimental features uncovered recently. We then use a simple generalization of the Landauer-B\"uttiker model, based on the interplay between tunneling and chiral currents -- the co-existing mechanisms for transport -- to explain the three distinct types of fluctuations observed, and identify the central region as the critical region.Comment: changes to acknowledgements onl

    Statistical significance of rich-club phenomena in complex networks

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    We propose that the rich-club phenomena in complex networks should be defined in the spirit of bootstrapping, in which a null model is adopted to assess the statistical significance of the rich-club detected. Our method can be served as a definition of rich-club phenomenon and is applied to analyzing three real networks and three model networks. The results improve significantly compared with previously reported results. We report a dilemma with an exceptional example, showing that there does not exist an omnipotent definition for the rich-club phenomenon.Comment: 3 Revtex pages + 5 figure

    Large Momenta Fluctuations Of Charm Quarks In The Quark-Gluon Plasma

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    We show that large fluctuations of D mesons kinetic energy (or momentum) distributions might be a signature of a phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP). In particular, a jump in the variance of the momenta or kinetic energy, as a function of a control parameter (temperature or Fermi energy at finite baryon densities) might be a signature for a first order phase transition to the QGP. This behaviour is completely consistent with the order parameter defined for a system of interacting quarks at zero temperature and finite baryon densities which shows a jump in correspondance to a first order phase transition to the QGP. The J/ΨJ/\Psi shows exactly the same behavior of the order parameter and of the variance of the D mesons. We discuss implications for relativistic heavy ion collisions within the framework of a transport model and possible hints for experimental data.Comment: 4 pages 3 figure

    Conditions for Nondistortion Interrogation of Quantum System

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    Under some physical considerations, we present a universal formulation to study the possibility of localizing a quantum object in a given region without disturbing its unknown internal state. When the interaction between the object and probe wave function takes place only once, we prove the necessary and sufficient condition that the object's presence can be detected in an initial state preserving way. Meanwhile, a conditioned optimal interrogation probability is obtained.Comment: 5 pages, Revtex, 1 figures, Presentation improved, corollary 1 added. To appear in Europhysics Letter
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