25 research outputs found

    Procedure-Aware Pretraining for Instructional Video Understanding

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    Our goal is to learn a video representation that is useful for downstream procedure understanding tasks in instructional videos. Due to the small amount of available annotations, a key challenge in procedure understanding is to be able to extract from unlabeled videos the procedural knowledge such as the identity of the task (e.g., 'make latte'), its steps (e.g., 'pour milk'), or the potential next steps given partial progress in its execution. Our main insight is that instructional videos depict sequences of steps that repeat between instances of the same or different tasks, and that this structure can be well represented by a Procedural Knowledge Graph (PKG), where nodes are discrete steps and edges connect steps that occur sequentially in the instructional activities. This graph can then be used to generate pseudo labels to train a video representation that encodes the procedural knowledge in a more accessible form to generalize to multiple procedure understanding tasks. We build a PKG by combining information from a text-based procedural knowledge database and an unlabeled instructional video corpus and then use it to generate training pseudo labels with four novel pre-training objectives. We call this PKG-based pre-training procedure and the resulting model Paprika, Procedure-Aware PRe-training for Instructional Knowledge Acquisition. We evaluate Paprika on COIN and CrossTask for procedure understanding tasks such as task recognition, step recognition, and step forecasting. Paprika yields a video representation that improves over the state of the art: up to 11.23% gains in accuracy in 12 evaluation settings. Implementation is available at https://github.com/salesforce/paprika.Comment: CVPR 202

    MSI: Maximize Support-Set Information for Few-Shot Segmentation

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    FSS(Few-shot segmentation)~aims to segment a target class with a small number of labeled images (support Set). To extract information relevant to target class, a dominant approach in best performing FSS baselines removes background features using support mask. We observe that this support mask presents an information bottleneck in several challenging FSS cases e.g., for small targets and/or inaccurate target boundaries. To this end, we present a novel method (MSI), which maximizes the support-set information by exploiting two complementary source of features in generating super correlation maps. We validate the effectiveness of our approach by instantiating it into three recent and strong FSS baselines. Experimental results on several publicly available FSS benchmarks show that our proposed method consistently improves the performance by visible margins and allows faster convergence. Our codes and models will be publicly released

    COMPOSER: Compositional Reasoning of Group Activity in Videos with Keypoint-Only Modality

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    Group Activity Recognition detects the activity collectively performed by a group of actors, which requires compositional reasoning of actors and objects. We approach the task by modeling the video as tokens that represent the multi-scale semantic concepts in the video. We propose COMPOSER, a Multiscale Transformer based architecture that performs attention-based reasoning over tokens at each scale and learns group activity compositionally. In addition, prior works suffer from scene biases with privacy and ethical concerns. We only use the keypoint modality which reduces scene biases and prevents acquiring detailed visual data that may contain private or biased information of users. We improve the multiscale representations in COMPOSER by clustering the intermediate scale representations, while maintaining consistent cluster assignments between scales. Finally, we use techniques such as auxiliary prediction and data augmentations tailored to the keypoint signals to aid model training. We demonstrate the model's strength and interpretability on two widely-used datasets (Volleyball and Collective Activity). COMPOSER achieves up to +5.4% improvement with just the keypoint modality. Code is available at https://github.com/hongluzhou/composerComment: ECCV 202

    Potential Use of In Situ Material Composites such as Regolith/Polyethylene for Shielding Space Radiation

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    NASA has an extensive program for studying materials and methods for the shielding of astronauts to reduce the effects of space radiation when on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, especially in the use of in situ materials native to the destination reducing the expense of materials transport. The most studied material from the Moon is Lunar regolith and has been shown to be as efficient as aluminum for shielding purposes (1). The addition of hydrogenous materials such as polyethylene should increase shielding effectiveness and provide mechanical properties necessary of structural materials (2). The neutron radiation shielding effectiveness of polyethylene/regolith stimulant (JSC-1A) composites were studied using confluent human fibroblast cell cultures exposed to a beam of high-energy spallation neutrons at the 30deg-left beam line (ICE house) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. At this angle, the radiation spectrum mimics the energy spectrum of secondary neutrons generated in the upper atmosphere and encountered when aboard spacecraft and high-altitude aircraft. Cell samples were exposed in series either directly to the neutron beam, within a habitat created using regolith composite blocks, or behind 25 g/sq cm of loose regolith bulk material. In another experiment, cells were also exposed in series directly to the neutron beam in T-25 flasks completely filled with either media or water up to a depth of 20 cm to test shielding effectiveness versus depth and investigate the possible influence of secondary particle generation. All samples were sent directly back to JSC for sub-culturing and micronucleus analysis. This presentation is of work performed in collaboration with the NASA sponsored Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M

    Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7 Outbreak, Sichuan, China

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    An outbreak of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan Province, and sporadic infections occurred in 4 additional provinces of China. In total, 99 S. suis strains were isolated and analyzed in this study: 88 isolates from human patients and 11 from diseased pigs. We defined 98 of 99 isolates as pulse type I by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing classified 97 of 98 members of the pulse type I in the same sequence type (ST), ST-7. Isolates of ST-7 were more toxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells than ST-1 strains. S. suis ST-7, the causative agent, was a single-locus variant of ST-1 with increased virulence. These findings strongly suggest that ST-7 is an emerging, highly virulent S. suis clone that caused the largest S. suis outbreak ever described

    A Novel Photovoltaic Array Outlier Cleaning Algorithm Based on Sliding Standard Deviation Mutation

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    There is a large number of outliers in the operation data of photovoltaic (PV) array, which is caused by array abnormalities and faults, communication issues, sensor failure, and array shutdown during PV power plant operation. The outlier will reduce the accuracy of PV system performance analysis and modeling, and make it difficult for fault diagnosis of PV power plant. The conventional data cleaning method is affected by the outlier data distribution. In order to solve the above problems, this paper presents a method for identifying PV array outliers based on sliding standard deviation mutation. Considering the PV array output characteristics under actual environmental conditions, the distribution of array outliers is analyzed. Then, an outlier identification method is established based on sliding standard deviation calculation. This method can identify outliers by analyzing the degree of dispersion of the operational data. The verification part is illustrated by case study and algorithm comparison. In the case study, multiple sets of actual operating data of different inverters are cleaned, which is selected from a large grid-connected power station. The cleaning results illustrate the availability of the algorithm. Then, the comparison against the quantile-algorithm-based outlier identification method explains the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm