5 research outputs found

    Corporate control? Measuring private sector censorship of social media : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Information Technology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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    Censoring activities on sensitive topics have played a significant role on social network sites (SNSs). Owing to the difference in politics, economics and cultures in the various countries, many social network sites including Facebook, Twitter, Google, Reddit and Imgur might implement different censorship standards according to the situation of the country. This study aims to explore whether governments’ decision and censorship policies mentioned in previous studies have been implemented on main social network sites. Additionally, this article searches a list of sensitive keywords on each tested site, which is also the simplest approach applied to explore censorship on social networ k sites regulated using keywords filtering. Indeed, classifying a list of keywords into blacklist or merely blocking some defined sensitive topics refers to the primary method for censoring information on social network sites. The discussion makes us re-examine not only censorship on social network sites but also propose three possible conclusions concerning censorship on social network sites in specific country, such as ‘censorship is weaker than we anticipated’, ‘some social network sites focus on supporting country’s censorship’ and ‘censorship is imperfect to be implemented by social network sites’. As shown by results, some leaks still exist on current censorship of social network sites, while some sites fail to sensor harmful information that should be blocked. However, some harmless information is blocked by certain sites that may influence users’ browse information. By analyzing the censorship data of blocked keywords and pornography sites on Facebook, Twitter, Google, Reddit and Imgur, this research highlights the defect of censorship implemented on social network sites. Keywords: censorship standards, social network sites, censorin

    Urolithin A Inhibits the Catabolic Effect of TNFα on Nucleus Pulposus Cell and Alleviates Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in vivo

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    Low back pain (LBP) is a common worldwide disease that causes an enormous social economic burden. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is considered as a major cause of LBP. The process of IDD is complicated and involves both inflammation and senescence. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-1β, is increased in the degenerating intervertebral disc, inducing extracellular matrix degradation. Urolithin A (UA) is a metabolite compound resulting from the degradation of ellagitannins by gut bacteria. UA has been reported to be useful for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation, senescence, and oxidative damage. Therefore, we hypothesized that UA may be an effective treatment for IDD. This study examined the effects of UA on IDD in vitro and in vivo and explored their underlying mechanisms. Our findings indicated that UA could attenuate cellular senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide in nucleus pulposus cells. UA treatment decreased TNFα-induced matrix metalloproteinase production and the loss of collagen II. At the molecular level, UA considerably blocked the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-JUN N-terminal kinase, and Akt pathways. In vivo study illustrated that UA treatment could ameliorate IDD in a needle-punctured rat tail model, which was evaluated by X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological analysis. Thus, the results of our study revealed that UA may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of IDD

    Insights into the Role of Circadian Rhythms in Bone Metabolism: A Promising Intervention Target?

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    Numerous physiological processes of mammals, including bone metabolism, are regulated by the circadian clock system, which consists of a central regulator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the peripheral oscillators of the BMAL1/CLOCK-PERs/CRYs system. Various bone turnover markers and bone metabolism-regulating hormones such as melatonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) display diurnal rhythmicity. According to previous research, disruption of the circadian clock due to shift work, sleep restriction, or clock gene knockout is associated with osteoporosis or other abnormal bone metabolism, showing the importance of the circadian clock system for maintaining homeostasis of bone metabolism. Moreover, common causes of osteoporosis, including postmenopausal status and aging, are associated with changes in the circadian clock. In our previous research, we found that agonism of the circadian regulators REV-ERBs inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice, suggesting that clock genes may be promising intervention targets for abnormal bone metabolism. Moreover, osteoporosis interventions at different time points can provide varying degrees of bone protection, showing the importance of accounting for circadian rhythms for optimal curative effects in clinical treatment of osteoporosis. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about circadian rhythms and bone metabolism