84,071 research outputs found

### Tunable Localization and Oscillation of Coupled Plasmon Waves in Graded Plasmonic Chains

The localization (confinement) of coupled plasmon modes, named as gradons,
has been studied in metal nanoparticle chains immersed in a graded dielectric
host. We exploited the time evolution of various initial wavepackets formed by
the linear combination of the coupled modes. We found an important interplay
between the localization of plasmonic gradons and the oscillation in such
graded plasmonic chains. Unlike in optical superlattices, gradient cannot
always lead to Bloch oscillations, which can only occur for wavepackets
consisting of particular types of gradons. Moreover, the wavepackets will
undergo different forms of oscillations. The correspondence can be applied to
design a variety of optical devices by steering among various oscillations.Comment: Sumitted to Journal of Applied Physic

### Phase diagram of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

The exact macroscopic wave functions of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates
in an optical lattice beyond the tight-binding approximation are studied by
solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The phase diagram for
superfluid and insulator phases of the condensates is determined analytically
according to the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, which are seen
to be traveling matter waves.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figure

### Chirality Dependence of the $K$-Momentum Dark Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes

Using a collection of twelve semiconducting carbon nanotube samples, each
highly enriched in a single chirality, we study the chirality dependence of the
$K$-momentum dark singlet exciton using phonon sideband optical spectroscopy.
Measurements of bright absorptive and emissive sidebands of this finite
momentum exciton identify its energy as 20 - 38 meV above the bright singlet
exciton, a separation that exhibits systematic dependencies on tube diameter,
$2n+m$ family, and semiconducting type. We present calculations that explain
how chiral angle dependence in this energy separation relates to the Coulomb
exchange interaction, and elaborate the dominance of the $K_{A_1'}$ phonon
sidebands over the zone-center phonon sidebands over a wide range of
chiralities. The Kataura plot arising from these data is qualitatively well
described by theory, but the energy separation between the sidebands shows a
larger chiral dependence than predicted. This latter observation may indicate a
larger dispersion for the associated phonon near the $K$ point than expected
from finite distance force modeling.Comment: 24 pages, 12 figures, 1 table; slight title change, Figures 1 and 11
added, reference added, presentation improved throughout documen

### Carbon Nanotubes in Helically Modulated Potentials

We calculate effects of an applied helically symmetric potential on the low
energy electronic spectrum of a carbon nanotube in the continuum approximation.
The spectrum depends on the strength of this potential and on a dimensionless
geometrical parameter, P, which is the ratio of the circumference of the
nanotube to the pitch of the helix. We find that the minimum band gap of a
semiconducting nanotube is reduced by an arbitrarily weak helical potential,
and for a given field strength there is an optimal P which produces the biggest
change in the band gap. For metallic nanotubes the Fermi velocity is reduced by
this potential and for strong fields two small gaps appear at the Fermi surface
in addition to the gapless Dirac point. A simple model is developed to estimate
the magnitude of the field strength and its effect on DNA-CNT complexes in an
aqueous solution. We find that under typical experimental conditions the
predicted effects of a helical potential are likely to be small and we discuss
several methods for increasing the size of these effects.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review B.
Image quality reduced to comply with arxiv size limitation

### ETEA: A euclidean minimum spanning tree-Based evolutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization

© the Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyAbstract The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), widely used in a variety of domains, is a minimum spanning tree of a set of points in the space, where the edge weight between each pair of points is their Euclidean distance. Since the generation of an EMST is entirely determined by the Euclidean distance between solutions (points), the properties of EMSTs have a close relation with the distribution and position information of solutions. This paper explores the properties of EMSTs and proposes an EMST-based Evolutionary Algorithm (ETEA) to solve multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). Unlike most EMO algorithms that focus on the Pareto dominance relation, the proposed algorithm mainly considers distance-based measures to evaluate and compare individuals during the evolutionary search. Specifically in ETEA, four strategies are introduced: 1) An EMST-based crowding distance (ETCD) is presented to estimate the density of individuals in the population; 2) A distance comparison approach incorporating ETCD is used to assign the fitness value for individuals; 3) A fitness adjustment technique is designed to avoid the partial overcrowding in environmental selection; 4) Three diversity indicators-the minimum edge, degree, and ETCD-with regard to EMSTs are applied to determine the survival of individuals in archive truncation. From a series of extensive experiments on 32 test instances with different characteristics, ETEA is found to be competitive against five state-of-the-art algorithms and its predecessor in providing a good balance among convergence, uniformity, and spread.Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the United Kingdom under
Grant EP/K001310/1, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61070088

### Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of the Lorenz Equations

Recent progress of symbolic dynamics of one- and especially two-dimensional
maps has enabled us to construct symbolic dynamics for systems of ordinary
differential equations (ODEs). Numerical study under the guidance of symbolic
dynamics is capable to yield global results on chaotic and periodic regimes in
systems of dissipative ODEs which cannot be obtained neither by purely
analytical means nor by numerical work alone. By constructing symbolic dynamics
of 1D and 2D maps from the Poincare sections all unstable periodic orbits up to
a given length at a fixed parameter set may be located and all stable periodic
orbits up to a given length may be found in a wide parameter range. This
knowledge, in turn, tells much about the nature of the chaotic limits. Applied
to the Lorenz equations, this approach has led to a nomenclature, i.e.,
absolute periods and symbolic names, of stable and unstable periodic orbits for
an autonomous system. Symmetry breakings and restorations as well as
coexistence of different regimes are also analyzed by using symbolic dynamics.Comment: 35 pages, LaTeX, 13 Postscript figures, uses psfig.tex. The revision
concerns a bug at the end of hlzfig12.ps which prevented the printing of the
whole .ps file from page 2

### Superluminal Caustics of Close, Rapidly-Rotating Binary Microlenses

The two outer triangular caustics (regions of infinite magnification) of a
close binary microlens move much faster than the components of the binary
themselves, and can even exceed the speed of light. When $\epsilon > 1$, where
$\epsilon c$ is the caustic speed, the usual formalism for calculating the lens
magnification breaks down. We develop a new formalism that makes use of the
gravitational analog of the Li\'enard-Wiechert potential. We find that as the
binary speeds up, the caustics undergo several related changes: First, their
position in space drifts. Second, they rotate about their own axes so that they
no longer have a cusp facing the binary center of mass. Third, they grow larger
and dramatically so for $\epsilon >> 1$. Fourth, they grow weaker roughly in
proportion to their increasing size. Superluminal caustic-crossing events are
probably not uncommon, but they are difficult to observe.Comment: 12 pages, 7 ps figures, submitted to Ap

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