84,071 research outputs found

    Tunable Localization and Oscillation of Coupled Plasmon Waves in Graded Plasmonic Chains

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    The localization (confinement) of coupled plasmon modes, named as gradons, has been studied in metal nanoparticle chains immersed in a graded dielectric host. We exploited the time evolution of various initial wavepackets formed by the linear combination of the coupled modes. We found an important interplay between the localization of plasmonic gradons and the oscillation in such graded plasmonic chains. Unlike in optical superlattices, gradient cannot always lead to Bloch oscillations, which can only occur for wavepackets consisting of particular types of gradons. Moreover, the wavepackets will undergo different forms of oscillations. The correspondence can be applied to design a variety of optical devices by steering among various oscillations.Comment: Sumitted to Journal of Applied Physic

    Phase diagram of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

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    The exact macroscopic wave functions of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice beyond the tight-binding approximation are studied by solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The phase diagram for superfluid and insulator phases of the condensates is determined analytically according to the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, which are seen to be traveling matter waves.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figure

    Chirality Dependence of the KK-Momentum Dark Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes

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    Using a collection of twelve semiconducting carbon nanotube samples, each highly enriched in a single chirality, we study the chirality dependence of the KK-momentum dark singlet exciton using phonon sideband optical spectroscopy. Measurements of bright absorptive and emissive sidebands of this finite momentum exciton identify its energy as 20 - 38 meV above the bright singlet exciton, a separation that exhibits systematic dependencies on tube diameter, 2n+m2n+m family, and semiconducting type. We present calculations that explain how chiral angle dependence in this energy separation relates to the Coulomb exchange interaction, and elaborate the dominance of the KA1K_{A_1'} phonon sidebands over the zone-center phonon sidebands over a wide range of chiralities. The Kataura plot arising from these data is qualitatively well described by theory, but the energy separation between the sidebands shows a larger chiral dependence than predicted. This latter observation may indicate a larger dispersion for the associated phonon near the KK point than expected from finite distance force modeling.Comment: 24 pages, 12 figures, 1 table; slight title change, Figures 1 and 11 added, reference added, presentation improved throughout documen

    Carbon Nanotubes in Helically Modulated Potentials

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    We calculate effects of an applied helically symmetric potential on the low energy electronic spectrum of a carbon nanotube in the continuum approximation. The spectrum depends on the strength of this potential and on a dimensionless geometrical parameter, P, which is the ratio of the circumference of the nanotube to the pitch of the helix. We find that the minimum band gap of a semiconducting nanotube is reduced by an arbitrarily weak helical potential, and for a given field strength there is an optimal P which produces the biggest change in the band gap. For metallic nanotubes the Fermi velocity is reduced by this potential and for strong fields two small gaps appear at the Fermi surface in addition to the gapless Dirac point. A simple model is developed to estimate the magnitude of the field strength and its effect on DNA-CNT complexes in an aqueous solution. We find that under typical experimental conditions the predicted effects of a helical potential are likely to be small and we discuss several methods for increasing the size of these effects.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review B. Image quality reduced to comply with arxiv size limitation

    ETEA: A euclidean minimum spanning tree-Based evolutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization

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    © the Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyAbstract The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), widely used in a variety of domains, is a minimum spanning tree of a set of points in the space, where the edge weight between each pair of points is their Euclidean distance. Since the generation of an EMST is entirely determined by the Euclidean distance between solutions (points), the properties of EMSTs have a close relation with the distribution and position information of solutions. This paper explores the properties of EMSTs and proposes an EMST-based Evolutionary Algorithm (ETEA) to solve multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). Unlike most EMO algorithms that focus on the Pareto dominance relation, the proposed algorithm mainly considers distance-based measures to evaluate and compare individuals during the evolutionary search. Specifically in ETEA, four strategies are introduced: 1) An EMST-based crowding distance (ETCD) is presented to estimate the density of individuals in the population; 2) A distance comparison approach incorporating ETCD is used to assign the fitness value for individuals; 3) A fitness adjustment technique is designed to avoid the partial overcrowding in environmental selection; 4) Three diversity indicators-the minimum edge, degree, and ETCD-with regard to EMSTs are applied to determine the survival of individuals in archive truncation. From a series of extensive experiments on 32 test instances with different characteristics, ETEA is found to be competitive against five state-of-the-art algorithms and its predecessor in providing a good balance among convergence, uniformity, and spread.Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the United Kingdom under Grant EP/K001310/1, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61070088

    Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of the Lorenz Equations

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    Recent progress of symbolic dynamics of one- and especially two-dimensional maps has enabled us to construct symbolic dynamics for systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Numerical study under the guidance of symbolic dynamics is capable to yield global results on chaotic and periodic regimes in systems of dissipative ODEs which cannot be obtained neither by purely analytical means nor by numerical work alone. By constructing symbolic dynamics of 1D and 2D maps from the Poincare sections all unstable periodic orbits up to a given length at a fixed parameter set may be located and all stable periodic orbits up to a given length may be found in a wide parameter range. This knowledge, in turn, tells much about the nature of the chaotic limits. Applied to the Lorenz equations, this approach has led to a nomenclature, i.e., absolute periods and symbolic names, of stable and unstable periodic orbits for an autonomous system. Symmetry breakings and restorations as well as coexistence of different regimes are also analyzed by using symbolic dynamics.Comment: 35 pages, LaTeX, 13 Postscript figures, uses psfig.tex. The revision concerns a bug at the end of hlzfig12.ps which prevented the printing of the whole .ps file from page 2

    Superluminal Caustics of Close, Rapidly-Rotating Binary Microlenses

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    The two outer triangular caustics (regions of infinite magnification) of a close binary microlens move much faster than the components of the binary themselves, and can even exceed the speed of light. When ϵ>1\epsilon > 1, where ϵc\epsilon c is the caustic speed, the usual formalism for calculating the lens magnification breaks down. We develop a new formalism that makes use of the gravitational analog of the Li\'enard-Wiechert potential. We find that as the binary speeds up, the caustics undergo several related changes: First, their position in space drifts. Second, they rotate about their own axes so that they no longer have a cusp facing the binary center of mass. Third, they grow larger and dramatically so for ϵ>>1\epsilon >> 1. Fourth, they grow weaker roughly in proportion to their increasing size. Superluminal caustic-crossing events are probably not uncommon, but they are difficult to observe.Comment: 12 pages, 7 ps figures, submitted to Ap
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