3,416 research outputs found

    N 2,N 2′-Bis[2-(ethoxy­carbonyl­meth­oxy)­benzyl­idene]pyridine-2,6-dicarbohydrazide

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    In the title compound, C29H29N5O8, the ester group is disordered over two sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.91/0.09. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter- and intra­molecular hydrogen-bond inter­actions

    Transverse structure of the pion beyond leading twist with basis light-front quantization

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    We investigate the twist-33 transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) of the pion with basis light-front quantization. The twist-3 TMDs are not independent and can be decomposed into twist-22 and genuine twist-33 terms from the equations of motion (EOM). We compute the TMDs from the resulting light-front wave functions obtained by diagonalizing the light-front QCD Hamiltonian, determined for pion's constituent quark-antiquark and quark-antiquark-gluon Fock sectors, with three-dimensional confinement. We also obtain the twist-3 parton distribution functions (PDFs) and show that they preserve the sum rule, which affirms the robustness of our approach. This is the first time that theoretical predictions are made for subleading twist structures of the pion containing interference terms between two light-front Fock sectors.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figure

    Solar microwave millisecond spike at 2.84 GHz

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    Using the high time resolution of 1 ms, the data of solar microwave millisecond spike (MMS) event was recorded more than two hundred times at the frequency of 2.84 GHz at Beijing (Peking) Observatory since May 1981. A preliminary analysis was made. It can be seen from the data that the MMS-events have a variety of the fast activities such as the dispersed and isolated spikes, the clusters of the crowded spikes, the weak spikes superimposed on the noise background, and the phenomena of absorption. The marked differences from that observed with lower time resolution are presented. Using the data, a valuable statistical analysis was made. There are close correlations between MMS-events and hard X-ray bursts, and fast drifting bursts. The MMS events are highly dependent on the type of active regions and the magnetic field configuration. It seems to be crucial to find out the accurate positions on the active region where the MMS-events happen and to make co-operative observations at different bands during the special period when specific active regions appear on the solar disk

    Can the direct medical cost of chronic disease be transferred across different countries? Using cost-of-illness studies on type 2 diabetes, epilepsy and schizophrenia as examples

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    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review cost of illness studies for schizophrenia (SC), epilepsy (EP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explore the transferability of direct medical cost across countries. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to yield studies that estimated direct medical costs. A generalized linear model (GLM) with gamma distribution and log link was utilized to explore the variation in costs that accounted by the included factors. Both parametric (Random-effects model) and non-parametric (Boot-strapping) meta-analyses were performed to pool the converted raw cost data (expressed as percentage of GDP/capita of the country where the study was conducted). RESULTS: In total, 93 articles were included (40 studies were for T2DM, 34 studies for EP and 19 studies for SC). Significant variances were detected inter- and intra-disease classes for the direct medical costs. Multivariate analysis identified that GDP/capita (p<0.05) was a significant factor contributing to the large variance in the cost results. Bootstrapping meta-analysis generated more conservative estimations with slightly wider 95% confidence intervals (CI) than the parametric meta-analysis, yielding a mean (95%CI) of 16.43% (11.32, 21.54) for T2DM, 36.17% (22.34, 50.00) for SC and 10.49% (7.86, 13.41) for EP. CONCLUSIONS: Converting the raw cost data into percentage of GDP/capita of individual country was demonstrated to be a feasible approach to transfer the direct medical cost across countries. The approach from our study to obtain an estimated direct cost value along with the size of specific disease population from each jurisdiction could be used for a quick check on the economic burden of particular disease for countries without such data