24,347 research outputs found

    Entropic force and its fluctuation in Euclidian quantum gravity

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    In this paper, we study the idea about gravity as entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By applying the identification between partition functions of gravity theory and the dual field theory, we find the gravitational force can be calculated from the changing of entropy induced from its dual field theory side. Unlike Verlinde's calculation, our method does not depend on other assumptions such as equipartition of energy, so it is a safe check on the entropic force idea. Also we show how entropic force can be derived by similar method from gravity side along, which will provide a clue to a better understanding on the gauge/gravity duality. At last, we study the fluctuation of the force, and we find the fluctuation acting on the point-like particle can never be larger than the expectation value of the force. For black hole in AdS space, by gauge/gravity duality, the fluctuation is induced by thermal fluctuation from field theory living on conformal boundary. And for the metric of black hole in flat space, the ratio between fluctuation and force goes to a constantTm\frac{T}{m} at infinity. .Comment: typos revised, more detailed discussio

    Naturalness from a Composite Top?

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    We consider a theory with composite top quarks but an elementary Higgs boson. The hierarchy problem can be solved by supplementing TeV scale top compositeness with either supersymmetry or Higgs compositeness appearing at the multi-TeV scale. The Higgs boson couples to uncolored partons within the top quark. We study how this approach can give rise to a novel screening effect that suppresses production of the colored top partners at the LHC. Strong constraints arise from Z to bb, as well potentially from flavor physics. Independent of flavor considerations, current constraints imply a compositeness scale near a TeV; this implies that the model is likely tuned at the percent level. Four top quark production at the LHC is a smoking-gun probe of this scenario. New CP violation in D meson mixing is also possible.Comment: Improved discussion of precision electroweak constraints. Expanded discussion of potential mixing between composite and elementary fields. Version to appear in JHE

    Direct prediction of the solute softening-to-hardening transition in W-Re alloys using stochastic simulations of screw dislocation motion

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    Interactions among dislocations and solute atoms are the basis of several important processes in metals plasticity. In body-centered cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, low-temperature plastic flow is controlled by screw dislocation glide, which is known to take place by the nucleation and sideward relaxation of kink pairs across two consecutive \emph{Peierls} valleys. In alloys, dislocations and solutes affect each other's kinetics via long-range stress field coupling and short-range inelastic interactions. It is known that in certain substitutional bcc alloys a transition from solute softening to solute hardening is observed at a critical concentration. In this paper, we develop a kinetic Monte Carlo model of screw dislocation glide and solute diffusion in substitutional W-Re alloys. We find that dislocation kinetics is governed by two competing mechanisms. At low solute concentrations, nucleation is enhanced by the softening of the Peierls stress, which overcomes the elastic repulsion of Re atoms on kinks. This trend is reversed at higher concentrations, resulting in a minimum in the flow stress that is concentration and temperature dependent. This minimum marks the transition from solute softening to hardening, which is found to be in reasonable agreement with experiments

    Dark Matter Induced Nucleon Decay: Model and Signatures

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    If dark matter (DM) carries anti-baryon number, a DM particle may annihilate with a nucleon by flipping to anti-DM. Inspired by Hylogenesis models, we introduce a single component DM model where DM is asymmetric and carries B and L as -1/2. It can annihilate with a nucleon to an anti-lepton and an anti-DM at leading order or with an additional meson at sub-leading order. Such signals may be observed in proton decay experiments. If DM is captured in the Sun, the DM induced nucleon decay can generate a large flux of anti-neutrinos, which could be observed in neutrino experiments. Furthermore, the anti-DM particle in the final state obtains a relatively large momentum (few hundred MeV), and escapes the Sun. These fast-moving anti-DM particles could also induce interesting signals in various underground experiments.Comment: Discussion about (g-2) is added. References are updated. Introduction is expanded. Accepted by JHE

    Algorithms for finding transposons in gene sequences

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    With the process of evolution, some genes will change their relative positions in gene sequence. These "jumping genes" are called transposons. Through some intuitive rules, we give a criterion to determine transposons among gene sequences of different individuals of the same species. Then we turn this problem into graph theory and give algorithms for different situations with acceptable time complexities. One of these algorithms has been reported briefly as the "iteration algorithm" in Kang et al.'s paper (in this paper, transposon is called "core-gene-defined genome organizational framework", cGOF). This paper provides the omitted details and discussions on general cases.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure