116 research outputs found

    The Sylvester equation and integrable equations: I. The Korteweg-de Vries system and sine-Gordon equation

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    The paper is to reveal the direct links between the well known Sylvester equation in matrix theory and some integrable systems. Using the Sylvester equation KM+MK=rsT\boldsymbol{K} \boldsymbol{M}+\boldsymbol{M} \boldsymbol{K}=\boldsymbol{r}\, \boldsymbol{s}^{T} we introduce a scalar function S(i,j)=sTKj(I+M)1KirS^{(i,j)}=\boldsymbol{s}^{T}\, \boldsymbol{K}^j(\boldsymbol{I}+\boldsymbol{M})^{-1}\boldsymbol{K}^i\boldsymbol{r} which is defined as same as in discrete case. S(i,j)S^{(i,j)} satisfy some recurrence relations which can be viewed as discrete equations and play indispensable roles in deriving continuous integrable equations. By imposing dispersion relations on r\boldsymbol{r} and s\boldsymbol{s}, we find the Korteweg-de Vries equation, modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, Schwarzian Korteweg-de Vries equation and sine-Gordon equation can be expressed by some discrete equations of S(i,j)S^{(i,j)} defined on certain points. Some special matrices are used to solve the Sylvester equation and prove symmetry property S(i,j)=S(i,j)S^{(i,j)}=S^{(i,j)}. The solution M\boldsymbol{M} provides τ\tau function by τ=I+M\tau=|\boldsymbol{I}+\boldsymbol{M}|. We hope our results can not only unify the Cauchy matrix approach in both continuous and discrete cases, but also bring more links for integrable systems and variety of areas where the Sylvester equation appears frequently.Comment: 23 page

    Design of the Tsinghua Tabletop Kibble Balance

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    The Kibble balance is a precision instrument for realizing the mass unit, the kilogram, in the new international system of units (SI). In recent years, an important trend for Kibble balance experiments is to go tabletop, in which the instrument's size is notably reduced while retaining a measurement accuracy of 10810^{-8}. In this paper, we report a new design of a tabletop Kibble balance to be built at Tsinghua University. The Tsinghua Kibble balance aims to deliver a compact instrument for robust mass calibrations from 10 g to 1 kg with a targeted measurement accuracy of 50 μ\mug or less. Some major features of the Tsinghua Kibble balance system, including the design of a new magnet, one-mode measurement scheme, the spring-compensated magnet moving mechanism, and magnetic shielding considerations, are discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figure

    Multi-helical Lamb Wave Imaging for Pipe-like Structures Based on a Probabilistic Reconstruction Approach

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    The special form of pipe-like structure provides the helical route for ultrasonic guided wave. Considering the pipe as a flattened plate but with periodical replications, the helical wave becomes intuitional and a corresponding imaging algorithm can be constructed. This work proposes the multihelical Lamb wave imaging method by utilizing the multiple arrival wavepackets which are denoted as different orders. The helical wave signal model is presented and the constant group velocity point is illustrated. The probabilistic reconstruction algorithm is combined with the separation and fusion of different helical routes. To verify the proposed scheme, finite element simulations and corresponding experiments are conducted. The cases of single-defect simulation and two-defect simulation indicate the successful and robust implementation of the imaging algorithm. The test on actual pipe damage is also investigated to show its capability in imaging an irregular defect. The comparison with imaging results from only first arrival demonstrates the advantage of multihelical wave imaging, including the better imaging resolution and higher localization accuracy