143,933 research outputs found

    Multiple Chirality in Nuclear Rotation: A Microscopic View

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    Covariant density functional theory and three-dimensional tilted axis cranking are used to investigate multiple chirality in nuclear rotation for the first time in a fully self-consistent and microscopic way. Two distinct sets of chiral solutions with negative and positive parities, respectively, are found in the nucleus 106Rh. The negative-parity solutions reproduce well the corresponding experimental spectrum as well as the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios of the transition strengths. This indicates that a predicted positive-parity chiral band should also exist. Therefore, it provides a further strong hint that multiple chirality is realized in nuclei.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, 1 tabl

    Narrative in design development

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    This paper describes the value of narrative used with ideation tools in aiding the rapid production of product concepts and designs for masters students of graphics, fine art, product and industrial design. The ideation tools used alongside narrative included elements of divergent and convergent thinking in combination with reverse engineering and functional analysis, and practical prototyping using a range of readily adapted artefacts. Narrative was introduced and used by the students in order to ensure the development of a context and purpose for the product, artefact or system developed or proposed and to stimulate original product concepts, ideas and thinking. The concept of narrative is familiar in design. Here however the concept was reinforced using structures associated with fictional narrative. Reverse engineering exploring the deconstruction and identification of function for each component in a product was used to aid students ensure practicality in their idea implementation. This paper describes positive experiences resulting from this activity, with a particular focus on the value of narrative in developing robust concepts. The use of physical prototyping provided tangible and instant feedback for divergent and convergent phases of idea development

    Complete time-dependent treatment of a three-level system

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    Both unitary evolution and the effects of dissipation and decoherence for a general three-level system are of widespread interest in quantum optics, molecular physics, and elsewhere. A previous paper presented a technique for solving the time-dependent operator equations involved but under certain restrictive conditions. We now extend our results to a general three-level system with arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and Lindblad operators. Analytical handling of the SU(3) algebra of the eight operators involved leaves behind a set of coupled first-order differential equations for classical functions. Solution of this set gives a complete solution of the quantum problem, without having to invoke rotating-wave or other approximations. Numerical illustrations are given.Comment: 1 tar.gz file containing a Tex and four eps figure files; unzip with command gunzip RZPRA05.tar.g

    Nonsymmorphic symmetry-required band crossings in topological semimetals

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    We show that for two-band systems nonsymmorphic symmetries may enforce the existence of band crossings in the bulk, which realize Fermi surfaces of reduced dimensionality. We find that these unavoidable crossings originate from the momentum dependence of the nonsymmorphic symmetry, which puts strong restrictions on the global structure of the band configurations. Three different types of nonsymmorphic symmetries are considered: (i) a unitary nonsymmorphic symmetry, (ii) a nonsymmorphic magnetic symmetry, and (iii) a nonsymmorphic symmetry combined with inversion. For nonsymmorphic symmetries of the latter two types, the band crossings are located at high-symmetry points of the Brillouin zone, with their exact positions being determined by the algebra of the symmetry operators. To characterize these band degeneracies we introduce a \emph{global} topological charge and show that it is of Z2\mathbb{Z}_2 type, which is in contrast to the \emph{local} topological charge of Fermi points in, say, Weyl semimetals. To illustrate these concepts, we discuss the π\pi-flux state as well as the SSH model at its critical point and show that these two models fit nicely into our general framework of nonsymmorphic two-band systems.Comment: 6.5 pages, 4 figure