29 research outputs found

    Dominance of HIV-1 Subtype CRF01_AE in Sexually Acquired Cases Leads to a New Epidemic in Yunnan Province of China

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    BACKGROUND: Dating back to the first epidemic among injection drug users in 1989, the Yunnan province has had the highest number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in China. However, the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Yunnan has not been fully characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using immunoassays, we identified 103,015 accumulated cases of HIV-1 infections in Yunnan between 1989 and 2004. We studied 321 patients representing Yunnan's 16 prefectures from four risk groups, 11 ethnic populations, and ten occupations. We identified three major circulating subtypes: C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC (53%), CRF01_AE (40.5%), and B (6.5%) by analyzing the sequence of p17, which is part of the gag gene. For patients with known risk factors, 90.9% of injection drug users had C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses, whereas 85.4% of CRF01_AE infections were acquired through sexual transmission. No distinct segregation of CRF01_AE viruses was found among the Dai ethnic group. Geographically, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC was found throughout the province, while CRF01_AE was largely confined to the prefectures bordering Myanmar. Furthermore, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses were found to consist of a group of viruses, including C, CRF08_BC, CRF07_BC, and new BC recombinants, based on the characterization of their reverse transcriptase genes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a province-wide HIV-1 molecular epidemiological study in Yunnan. While C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE are codominant, the discovery of many sexually transmitted CRF01_AE cases is new and suggests that this subtype may lead to a new epidemic in the general Chinese population. We discuss implications of our results for understanding the evolution of the HIV-1 pandemic and for vaccine development

    Size effect measurement and characterization in nanoindentation test

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    Analysis of the Precipitable Water Vapor Observation in Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau during the Convective Weather System in Summer

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    The ERA5 reanalysis dataset of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in the summers from 2015 to 2020 was used to compare and analyze the features of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) observed by six ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology (GNSS/MET) stations in the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. The correlation coefficients of the two datasets ranged between 0.804 and 0.878, the standard deviations ranged between 4.686 and 7.338 mm, and the monthly average deviations ranged between −4.153 and 9.459 mm, which increased with the altitude of the station. Matching the quality-controlled ground precipitation data with the PWV in time and space revealed that most precipitation occurred when the PWV was between 30 and 65 mm and roughly met the normal distribution. We used the vertical integral of divergence of moisture flux (∇p) and S-band Doppler radar networking products combined with the PWV to study the convergence and divergence process and the water vapor delivery conditions during the deep convective weather process from August 24 to 26, 2020, which can be used to analyze the real-time observation capability and continuity of PWV in small-scale and mesoscale weather processes. Furthermore, the 1 h precipitation and the cloud top temperature (ctt) data at the same site were used to demonstrate the effect of PWV on the transit of convective weather systems from different time–space scales