760 research outputs found

    Molybdenum complexes derived from the oxydianiline [(2-NH₂C₆H₄)₂O] : synthesis, characterization and ε-caprolactone ROP capability

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    The reaction of Na₂MoO₄ with 2,2′-oxydianiline (2-aminophenylether), (2-NH₂C₆H₄)₂O, LH₄, in DME (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) in the presence of Et₃N and Me₃SiCl afforded either the bis(imido) molybdenum(VI) complex {Mo(L)Cl₂(DME)} (1), where L = (2-NC₆H₄)₂O, or the molybdenum(V) salt [Mo(L′)Cl₄][Et₃NH] (2), where L′ = [(2-NH₂C₆H₄)(2-NC₆H₄)O], depending on the work-up method employed. The same diamine reacted with in situ [Mo(NtBu)₂Cl₂(DME)] afforded a tetra-nuclear complex [Mo₄Cl₃(NtBu)₃(OSiMe₃)(μ₄-O)(L)₂(L′)₂]·2MeCN (3·2MeCN). The crystal structures of 1, 2 and 3·2MeCN have been determined. The structure of the bis(imido) complex 1 contains two unique molecules paired up via weak π-stacking, whereas the structure of 2 contains a chelating amine/imido ligand, and is made up of discrete units of two cations and two anions which are interacting via H-bonding. The tetra-nuclear structure 3 contains four different types of distorted octahedral molybdenum centre, and a bent Me₃SiO group thought to originate from the precursor synthesis. Complexes 1–3 have been screened for their ability to ring open polymerize (ROP) ε-caprolactone. For 1 and 3 (not 2), conversion rates were good (>90%) at high temperatures (100 °C) over 6–24 h, and the polymerization proceeded in a living manner

    Selective ethylene trimerization by titanium complexes bearing phenoxy-imine ligands: NMR and EPR Spectroscopic studies of the reaction intermediates

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    The catalyst systems (FI)TiCl₃/MAO (FI = phenoxyimine ligand with an additional aryl–O–CH₃ donor) display exceptionally high activity in selective ethylene trimerization. By means of NMR and EPR spectroscopy, the nature of the Ti species formed in the catalyst systems (FI)TiCl₃/MAO, (FI)TiCl₃/MMAO, and (FI)TiCl₃/AlR₃/[Ph₃C]⁺[B(C₆F₅)₄]⁻ (R = Me, Et, ⁱBu) has been studied. It was shown that outer-sphere ion pairs of the type [(FI)TiIVMe₂]⁺[A]⁻ ([A]− = [MeMAO]⁻, [MeMMAO]⁻, [B(C₆F₅)₄]⁻) are formed at the initial stage of the reaction of (FI)TiCl₃ with MAO, MMAO, and AlMe₃/[Ph₃C]⁺[B(C₆F₅)₄]⁻. These ion pairs further partially convert into TiIII and TiII species. In the systems (FI)TiCl₃/MAO and (FI)TiCl₃/AlMe₃/[Ph₃C]⁺[B(C₆F5)₄]⁻, complexes with the proposed structures (FI)TiIIIMe₂, (FI)TiIICl, and [(FI)TiII(S)]⁺[A]⁻ ([A]− = [MeMAO]⁻, [B(C₆F₅)4)]⁻, S = solvent, vacancy) were observed (concentrations of TiIII species was lower than those of the TiII congeners). In contrast, in the system (FI)TiCl₃/MMAO, the concentrations of TiIII species (ion pairs of the type [(FI)TiIII(μ-H)(μ-Cl)AlⁱBu₂]⁺[MeMMAO]⁻) were higher than those of the TiII counterparts (ion pairs [(FI)TiII(S)]⁺[MeMMAO]⁻). The system (FI)TiCl₃/MMAO displays lower activity and selectivity in 1-hexene formation, in comparison to (FI)TiCl₃/MAO, due to undesirable PE generation. Probably, TiII and TiIV ion pairs are those participating in ethylene trimerization

    Organoaluminium complexes of ortho-, meta-, para-anisidines: synthesis, structural studies and ROP of ε-caprolactone (and rac-lactide)

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    Reaction of Me₃Al (two equivalents) with ortho-, meta- or para-anisidine, (OMe)(NH₂)C₆H₄, affords the complexes {[1,2-(OMe),NC₆H₄(μ-Me₂Al)](μ-Me₂Al)}₂ (1), [1,3-(Me₃AlOMe),NHC₆H₄(μ-Me₂Al)]2 (2) or [1,4-(Me₃AlOMe),NHC₆H₄(μ-Me₂Al)]₂ (3), respectively. The molecular structures of 1–3 have been determined and all three complexes were found to be highly active for the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone. 1 was found highly active either with or without benzyl alcohol present; at various temperatures, the activity order 1 > 2 ≈ 3 was observed. For the ROP of rac-lactide results for 1–3 were poor

    Research progress on anterior segment optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

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    Glaucoma is the second blindness disease in the world, and there are more primary angle closed glaucoma in China. The anatomy changes of the anterior chamber have close relationships with the development of glaucoma. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT)has the advantages of fast, non-contact, high resolution and accurate quantitative measurement, which provides a kind of important method for finding the pathogenesis of primary angle closed glaucoma, for early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, and for the postoperative evaluation of glaucoma

    Manganese coordination chemistry of bis(imino)phenoxide derived [2 + 2] Schiff-base macrocyclic ligands

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    The [2 + 2] Schiff base macrocycles [2,2'-(CH₂CH₂)(C₆H₄N)₂-2,6-(4-RC₆H₃OH)]₂ (IʳH₂), upon reaction with MnCl₂ (two equivalents) afforded the bimetallic complex [Cl₃Mn(NCMe)][MnCl(IᵗᵇᵘH₂)] (2). Under similar conditions, use of the related [2 + 2] oxy-bridged macrocycle [2,2'-O(C₆H₄N=CH)₂4-RC₆H₃OH] (IIʳH₂), afforded the bimetallic complexes [(MnCl)₂IIʳ] (R = Me 3, tBu 4), whilst the macrocycle derived from 1,2-diaminobenzene and 5,5'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-methylenedibenzaldehyde (IIIH₄) afforded the complex [(MnCl)₂(III)]·2MeCN (5·2MeCN). For comparative studies, the salt complexes [2,6-(ArNHCH)₂-4-MeC₆H₂O][MnCl₃(NCMe)] (Ar = 2,4-Me₂C₆H₃, 6) and {[2,6-(ArNHCH)₂-4-MeC₆H₂O][MnCl}₂[MnCl₄]·8CH₂Cl₂ (Ar = 4-MeC₆H₄, 7·8CH₂Cl₂) were prepared. The crystal structures of 1 - 7 are reported (synchrotron radiation was necessary for complexes 1, 3 and 5). Complexes 1 - 7 (not 5) were screened for their potential to act as pre-catalysts for the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone; 3, 4 and 6, 7 were inactive, whilst 1 and 2 exhibited only poor activity low conversion (<15 %) at temperatures above 60 °C

    Bi- and tri-dentate imino-based iron and cobalt pre-catalysts for ethylene oligo-/polymerization

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    Recent progress on the use of iron and cobalt complex pre-catalysts for ethylene reactivity is reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the denticity of the chelate ligands employed, with particular reference to the influence of the ligand frameworks and their substituents on the catalytic performance for ethylene oligomerization/polymerization catalysis. The majority of the systems bear tri-dentate ligation at the iron/cobalt centre, though it is clear that bi-dentate iron/cobalt complex pre-catalysts have also attracted significant attention. Such systems produce in most cases highly linear products ranging from oligomeric α-olefins to high molecular weight polyethylene, and as such are promising candidates for both academic and industrial considerations

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein gene from chrysanthemum

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    A novel member of the Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein gene family, designated DgZFP3, was isolated from chrysanthemum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The DgZFP3 encodes a protein of 248 amino acids, including two conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs with a plant-specific QALGGH motif in each zinc finger domain, a B-box (KXKRSKRXR) domain in the N-terminal region as a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS), a L-box (EXEXXAXCLXXL) and an EAR-box (DLNL) at C-terminus. Subcellular localization showed the presence of DgZFP3 in the nucleus. The transcript of DgZFP3 was enriched in roots and leaves than in stems and flowers of the adult chrysanthemum plants. Expression patterns revealed that DgZFP3 was strongly induced by NaCl, drought, cold and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment in the seedlings. We argued that DgZFP3 is a new member of the Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein gene family, and it may be involved in the plant responses to various stresses.Keywords: Chrysanthemum, DgZFP3, gene expression, Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protei

    Molybdocalix[4]arene N,O-Schiff-base ligands

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    The ‘one-pot’ reaction of 2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylaldehyde with in situ generated ‘amino calixarene’ (from {Mo[(2-NC 6 H 4 ) 2 CH 2 CH 2 ]Cl 2 (DME)}, KOtBu and p-tert-butylcalix[4]areneH 4 LH 4 ) afforded, after work-up, the heterobimetallic salt K(NCMe) 2 [Mo(NCMe)(OEt)(2-C 6 H 4 CH 2 CH 2 C 6 H 4 NH 2 -2)L] (1∙2MeCN). By constrast, use of the ‘amino calixarene’ [Mo(NCMe)(2-C 6 H 4 CH 2 CH 2 C 6 H 4 NH 2 -2)L] afforded the potassium/ethoxide-free complex [Mo(NCMe)(2-C 6 H 4 CH 2 CH 2 C 6 H 4 N-2-CHC 6 H 2 -2′-(OH)-3′,5′-tBu)L] (2∙2MeCN). Reaction of the ‘amino calixarene’ (two equivalents) with the dialdehyde [1,3-(CHO) 2 -5-MeC 6 H 3 OH-2] led, following work-up, to the isolation of the cation-anion pair [C 46 H 42 N 4 O 2 ] 2+ [Mo 6 O 19 ] 2− ·C 2 H 3 N (3∙MeCN). The molecular structures of 1·2MeCN, 2·2MeCN and 3·MeCN are reported, for which it was necessary to use synchrotron radiation for data collection. Complex 1 contains an eliptical calixarene conformation as a result of π-interactions between the K + and the arene groups and a distorted O 5 N octahedral geometry at the molybdenum centre, whereas in ‘K + /ethoxide-free’ 2, the calixarene retains the cone conformation and the metal possesses a distorted octahedral O 4 N 2 coordination environment. In 3, a protonated macrocyclic cation, formed via hydrolysis, has weak intermolecular interactions with the polyoxomolybdate anion

    A non-interactive deniable authentication scheme in the standard model

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    Deniable authentication protocols enable a sender to authenticate a message to a receiver such that the receiver is unable to prove the identity of the sender to a third party. In contrast to interactive schemes, non-interactive deniable authentication schemes improve communication efficiency. Currently, several non-interactive deniable authentication schemes have been proposed with provable security in the random oracle model. In this paper, we study the problem of constructing non-interactive deniable authentication scheme secure in the standard model without bilinear groups. An efficient non-interactive deniable authentication scheme is presented by combining the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol with authenticated encryption schemes. We prove the security of our scheme by sequences of games and show that the computational cost of our construction can be dramatically reduced by applying pre-computation technique

    Ethyleneglycol tungsten complexes of calix[6 and 8]arenes: Synthesis, characterization and ROP of ε-caprolactone

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    By varying the reaction conditions, the reaction of [W(eg)₃] (eg = 1,2-ethanediolato) with p-tert-butylcalix[n]areneHn (n = 6 or 8) in refluxing toluene affords, following work-up, a number of products which have been fully characterized. From the reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[6]areneH₆ with one or two equivalents of [W(eg)₃], only the oxo-bridged complex {[W(eg)]₂(μ-O)p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene} (1) could be isolated, whereas the use of four equivalents of [W(eg)₃], in the presence of molecular sieves, afforded {[W(eg)₂]₂p-tert-butylcalix[6]areneH₂}·2MeCN (2); molecules of 2 pack in bi-layers. Under similar conditions, use of one or two equivalents of [W(eg)₃] and p-tert-butylcalix[8]areneH₈ afforded {[W(eg)]₂p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene}·MeCN (3) in which each tungsten centre was bound by four calixarene oxygens. By contrast, the small orange prisms resulting from the use of four equivalents of [W(eg)₃] and p-tert-butylcalix[8]areneH₈ were shown by synchrotron radiation to be a mixture of two isomers (4a/4b·3.5MeCN). In the major isomer {1,2-[W(eg)₂]₂p-tert-butylcalix[8]areneH₄} (4a), two tungsten centres bind to neighbouring sets of phenolate oxygens, whereas in the minor isomer {1,3-[W(eg)₂]₂p-tert-butylcalix[8]areneH₄} (4b), there is a protonated phenolic group between the two pairs of phenolate oxygens bound to tungsten; the major:minor ratio is about 83:17. Use of p-tert-butyltetrahomodioxacalix[6]areneH₆ with two equivalents of [W(eg)₃] resulted in the isolation of {[WO(eg)]₂p-tert-butyltetrahomodioxacalix[6]areneH₂} (5·0.83toluene·MeCN), in which each dimethyleneoxa bridge is bound to an oxotungsten(VI) centre. Complexes 1–5, together with the known complex [W(eg)p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene] (6), have been screened for their ability to ring open polymerize (ROP) ε-caprolactone; for 1, 2 and 5, 6 conversion rates were good (>88%) at 110 °C over 12 or 24 h, whereas the calix[8]arene complexes 3 and 4 under the same conditions were inactive
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