32,523 research outputs found

    Four Variations on Graded Posets

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    We explore the enumeration of some natural classes of graded posets, including all graded posets, (2+2)- and (3+1)-avoiding graded posets, (2+2)-avoiding graded posets, and (3+1)-avoiding graded posets. We obtain enumerative and structural theorems for all of them. Along the way, we discuss a situation when we can switch between enumeration of labeled and unlabeled objects with ease, generalize a result of Postnikov and Stanley from the theory of hyperplane arrangements, answer a question posed by Stanley, and see an old result of Klarner in a new light.Comment: 28 page

    Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis for bio-liquid jet fuel from open pond-based micro-algae under China conditions

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    This is the final version of the article. Available from MDPI via the DOI in this record.A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH4) emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the use of digestate (solid residue from anaerobic digestion) as agricultural fertilizer. Analyses were performed based on examination of process parameters, mass balance conditions, material requirement, energy consumptions and the realities of energy supply and transport in China (i.e., electricity generation and heat supply primarily based on coal, multiple transport modes). Our LCA result of the BJF pathway showed that, compared with the traditional petrochemical pathway, this new pathway will increase the overall fossil energy use and carbon emission by 39% and 70%, respectively, while decrease petroleum consumption by about 84%, based on the same units of energy service. Moreover, the energy conservation and emission reduction benefit of this new pathway may be accomplished by two sets of approaches: wider adoption of low-carbon process fuels and optimization of algae cultivation and harvest, and oil extraction processes. © 2013 by the authors.The project is co-supported by the China National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 71041028, 71103109), and the CAERC program (Tsinghua/GM/SAIC-China). The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their generous help

    Giant magnetoimpedance in crystalline Mumetal

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    We studied giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in commercial crystalline Mumetal, with the emphasis to sample thickness dependence and annealing effects. By using appropriate heat treatment one can achieve GMI ratios as high as 310%, and field sensitivity of about 20%/Oe, which is comparable to the best GMI characteristics obtained for amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure

    Electric vehicle market penetration and impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emission in the future: Beijing case

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    This is the final version of the article. Available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.This study focuses on the development of electric vehicles (EV) in the private passenger vehicle fleet in Beijing (China), analyzes how EVs will penetrate in the market, and estimates the resulting impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to 2030. A discrete choice model is adopted with consideration of variables including vehicle technical characteristics, fuel prices, charging conditions and support policies. Results show that by 2030, without technological breakthrough and support policies, the market share of EV will be less than 7%, with gasoline dominating the energy structure. With fast technological progress, charging facility establishment, subsidies and tax breaks, EVs will account for 70% of annual new vehicle sales and nearly half of the vehicle stock by 2030, resulting in the substitution of nearly 1 million tons of gasoline with 3.2 billion kWh electricity in 2030 and the reduction of 0.6 million tons of CO2 emission in 2030. Technological progress, charging conditions and fuel prices are the top three drivers. Subsidies play an important role in the early stage, while tax and supply-side policies can be good options as long-term incentivesThis project was co-sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71690240, 71690244, 71373142 and 71673165) and International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (2016YFE0102200). Lin Zhenhong of the US Oakridge National Lab is thanked for his great help in the modelling

    Adinkras for Mathematicians

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    Adinkras are graphical tools created for the study of representations in supersymmetry. Besides having inherent interest for physicists, adinkras offer many easy-to-state and accessible mathematical problems of algebraic, combinatorial, and computational nature. We use a more mathematically natural language to survey these topics, suggest new definitions, and present original results.Comment: 34 pages, 14 figure