420,827 research outputs found

    Using Different Approaches to Evaluate Individual Social Equity in Transport

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    Inequalities not only exist in the field of economics in relation to income and wealth, but also in other areas, such as the transport sector, where access to and use of different transport modes varies markedly across population groups, and which provides the means to access everyday living activities. A key concern within the transport sector is that inequality has extended beyond the traditional measures of travel, and now covers a wide range of effects relating to social exclusion, freedom, well-being and being able to access reasonable opportunities and resources. In order to address the aforementioned issues, an important question to resolve is what type of methods can be used to measure inequalities in transport most effectively. Therefore, this study aims to apply different approaches, including the Capabilities Approach (CA) and a further six inequality indices, namely the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson index, the Palma ratio, the Pietra ratio, the Schutz coefficient and the Theil index, to the case study using the relatively migrant-rich lower-income neighbourhood of Tuqiao, in Beijing, in order to assess individual transport-related social inequity issues. The findings suggest that the CA is useful in assessing transport-related inequalities where there are significant barriers to the take up of accessibility, for example where there are high levels of disadvantaged groups and disaggregated analysis can be undertaken. The Palma ratio appears to have a larger effect than the Gini coefficient and the other inequality indices when measuring transport-related social inequity. In addition, we also found that most income inequality methods adapted from econometrics may be better suited to measuring transport-related social inequity between different regions, cities or countries, or within the same area, but at different points in time, rather than to measuring a single neighbourhood as a whole. Finally, we argue that to what extent politicians or transport planners can use appropriate management tools to measure transport-related social inequalities may be significant in terms of the progress that can be made in the fight against social inequity in the transport field

    Yang-Mills condensate dark energy coupled with matter and radiation

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    The coincidence problem is studied for the dark energy model of effective Yang-Mills condensate in a flat expanding universe during the matter-dominated stage. The YMC energy ρy(t)\rho_y(t) is taken to represent the dark energy, which is coupled either with the matter, or with both the matter and the radiation components. The effective YM Lagrangian is completely determined by quantum field theory up to 1-loop order. It is found that under very generic initial conditions and for a variety of forms of coupling, the existence of the scaling solution during the early stages and the subsequent exit from the scaling regime are inevitable. The transition to the accelerating stage always occurs around a redshift z(0.30.5)z\simeq (0.3\sim 0.5). Moreover, when the Yang-Mills condensate transfers energy into matter or into both matter and radiation, the equation of state wyw_y of the Yang-Mills condensate can cross over -1 around z2z\sim 2, and takes on a current value 1.1\simeq -1.1. This is consistent with the recent preliminary observations on supernovae Ia. Therefore, the coincidence problem can be naturally solved in the effective YMC dark energy models.Comment: 24 pages, 18 figure

    Human environmental heat transfer simulation with CFD – the advances and challenges

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    The modelling and prediction of human thermoregulatory responses and comfort have gone a long way during the past decades. Sophisticated and detailed human models, i.e. the active multi-nodal thermal models with physiological regulatory responses, have been developed and widely adopted in both research and industrial practice. The recent trend is to integrate human models with environmental models in order to provide more insight into the thermal comfort issues, especially in the non-homogeneous and transient conditions. This paper reviews the logics and expectations of coupling human models with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. One of main objectives of such approaches is to take the advantage of the high resolution achievable with the CFD, to replace the empirical methods used in the human models. We aim to initiate debates on the validity of this objective, and to identify the technical requirements for achieving this goal. A simple experiment with 3D human models of different sizes and shapes is also reported. Initial results shows the presence of arms may be important. Further experiments are required to establish the impact of size and shape on simulation result